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186 8. 

e , V-''' 
LONDON. V? ? , 













When my late friend Moritz v. Beurmann returned from his 
first journey to Nubia and the North of Abyssinia in the year 1861, 
he brought with him a Tigre" servant, Abu Bekr, whom he had en- 
gaged at Massowa, and who had accompanied him already on his 
travels in the northern boundaries of Abyssinia. During his stay 
at Neisse he introduced the clever young man to me, and as he 
spoke besides his native language , Arabic and , if I am not mis- 
taken, Galla, I requested Beurmann to try, whether we might 
learn from him the general features of Tigre" , of which at that 
time nothing was known in Europe. Our common exertions were 
not unsuccessful, and as our first questions belonged to some very 
usual Ethiopic words, we were soon able to state the general 
changes , which the ancient dialect had suffered in the modern 
pronounciation. After these first attempts we began a systema- 
tical examination , by which we hoped to obtain the outlines of a 
grammar, but here we had many difficulties to overcome. Not 
only did the rapidity of the pronounciation and the indistinct and 
even fluctuating character of the vowels present a great hindrance 
to an accurate orthography, but also the consonants especially 

— VI — 
those of the S-class were spoken in different manners. Besides it 
was no easy task to obtain certain grammatical forms, especially 
those of the broken Plurals, for if we addressed a question to 
Abu Bekr, he often translated it litterally in Tigre' instead of 
answering its meaning, or vice versa, and it always required great 
pains to make him understand, that we wished to hear the 
different forms of the same word. The results of these our com- 
mon exertions will be found in the following grammatical sketch. 

After having left Neisse M. v. Beurmann did not abandon 
the idea of collecting a vocabulary of the Tigre' language, and so 
he daily wrote down those words, which he had heard from Abu 
Bekr, and as he was obliged to speak with him only Arabic he 
followed Humbert's Guide francais-arabe, asking always the Arabic 
word of Humbert and writing down the Tigr6 translation. Though 
he wished to obtain all those words in Tigre , which that Arabic 
vocabulary contains, nevertheless the preparation for his second 
expedition, which alas! had so deplorable an end, required so 
much time, that even he with all his extraordinary energy and 
zeal was not able to finish this work. So when he had started 
again on the day after Christmas 1861 in search of Vogel's re- 
mains with the firm intention either to cross the whole African 
continent from Benghazi to Chartum and Massowa, or never more 
to return, the materials he had collected were sent to me to be 

I immediately prepared them for the press, arranged the 
vocabulary after the German Alphabet , added the Arabic words 
of Humbert, in order that mistakes , which scarcely could have 
been avoided, might more easily be detected, compared the mo- 
dern words with the ancient, and lastly presented the whole to the 
German Oriental Society to be printed in their Journal. Though 

— VII — 

the publication had been accepted, it was continually delayed, 
and so finally Munzinger's and d'Abbadie's vocabularies appeared 
together with Dillmann's Ethiopic dictionary, whilst the collec- 
tion of Beurmann , who had been the first to prepare a work on 
the Tigre language, remained six years in the portfolio of the 

Under these circumstances, as the collection seemed too small 
to be published separately , I accepted with the greatest pleasure 
the kind offer of the Honourable Geographical Society, of Leipzic, 
to whose members M. v. Beurmann had belonged , to receive the 
little work into their annual report , and this so much the more, 
as I regarded it as my indispensable duty to publish the only 
litterary remains of the late author. Just at the time when 
the following vocabulary was about to be printed, the English 
Abyssinian expedition was being prepared, and by an easy associa- 
tion of ideas I was induced to hope, that such a Vocabulary might 
possibly be at this moment of practical use, if it came early enough 
into the hands of the members of the Abyssinian expedition, who 
would find in it about one thousand very usual words of the most 
extended Abyssinian dialect. I therefore added the English words 
to the German series in a separate column, and wrote a more com- 
plete grammatical sketch than I had formerly done, to make the 
whole collection in some degree useful also to those, who have not 
studied another Semitic language. By the liberality of the Geo- 
graphical Society I received a number of private copies of the vo- 
cabulary, which together with an English Index and the outlines 
of the grammar form the present volume. 

Though nobody can be more convinced of the incompleteness 
and insufficiency of this first essay, than I myself, I hope, that 
even an incomplete sketch will do a better service than nothing, 


and to those critics, who may be able to give anything better, I 
recommend the words of Saadi : 

jy l£*j ^^ ^ d-***- f? t5;W 

Say to the malicious and ignoble wasp : 
If thou doest not give honey, do not sting. 

Adalbert Merx, Dr. ph. 

Jena, December 1867. 

Thus much I had to say on the origin of the following voca- 
bulary , but as it is at present the only remains of the unhappy 
traveller, who had collected it, I feel it my duty to join to this 
preface some notices of the life of a man, who was zealously devoted 
to the promotion of science and civilization , and finally murdered 
by one of those, whose gradual civilization was the primary object 
of all his exertions. 

Charles Moritz von Beurmann was born on the 28 th July 1835 
at Potsdam, where his father occupied a high employment. Edu- 
cated in the house of his father, who since 1840 was Governor in 
Chief of the province of Posen, he was afterwards entrusted to the 
care of Dr. Kiessling and his wife, of whose paternal kindness and 
love he always bore a most thankful memory. In 1850 he left 
Posen, and as he wished to enter into military service, he began his 
career in the Garde-Pionier-Bataillon at Berlin, after having 
passed the years 1850 — 53 as a pupil of the Eoyal Realschule. 
It is customary for Prussian artillerists and engineers to frequent 
a sort of military academy, the Artillerieschule at Berlin, and 
so did Beurmann, who in 1856 became an officer. In this school 
he acquired a considerable knowledge of geography, mathematics 
and physics, which afterwards enabled him to determine the 
astronomical position of the localities, he visited on his travels, 
and to sketch plans and maps with great quickness and accuracy. 

- 2 - 

The following tiresome days of garrison life in Luxemburgh, where 
the company of his comrades had often but little interest for 
him , produced within his mind the first glimpse of that idea , in 
the service of which he afterwards lost his life. Here he began 
to study the travels of different African explorers, and it was 
especially the great work of Dr. Barth just then appearing (1857), 
that excited his vivid interest. But he knew very well that for 
the noble and high but difficult task of an African journey a par- 
ticular preparation and especially a wider linguistical education, 
than he could boast of, was necessary. So the young lieutenant, 
who in summer 1858 was sent to Neisse in Silesia, devoted all 
his free time to the study of Semitic grammar , and as he was 
endowed with rare talents for learning foreign languages he soon 
mastered the elements of Hebrew and Arabic. Studies of this 
kind were not favorable to his former inclination to a military 
career, and after three years of service, when he had abandoned it, 
he left Neisse and began in Breslau the special preparation for 
his first African expedition. There he certainly had many and 
difficult mental struggles to pass through, he felt the strong voca- 
tion to a life devoted only to scientific enterprise, and at the same 
time a filial respect to the wishes of a mother and a father, who 
trembled to think, that the life of their only son should be ex- 
posed to the inclemency of African climate and still more to 
the dull cruelty of African barbarians. Nevertheless, as Prof. 
Magnus informs me, under whose direction he continued his 
Arabic studies, he was inspired with a calm and settled enthusi- 
asm for his^great intention, and this gave him unfailing strength in 
his extraordinary exertions, for it is of course extraordinary, that 
in four months, during which he stayed in Breslau, he easily 
mastered an Arabic prose writer and had learned a good deal of 
Syriac too. The study of Ethiopic for the present was delayed, 
but afterwards I found him in some degree also acquainted with 
this language. Besides he participated in the operations of practical 
surgery, which he supposed might be possibly useful, and— it is 

- 3 - 

indeed astonishing, that in the evenings after a long day of toil he 
took the sledge-hammer and forged indefatigably with his black 
companions, as he also in the hours of the day began to learn 
the profession of a mason. In spite of all these exertions he never 
seemed to be weary, the great tenacity both of his mind and body 
overcame them all. 

But what was his primary intention? It was by no means 
the expectation of romantic scenes in the hunting-grounds of 
Africa, which induced him to set out, he intended to carry out an 
idea, which the Rev. J. L. Krapf had uttered long before, viz. that 
the only way, by which Africa can be freed of the plague of rhazzias 
and slavery, and by which a better European civilization, than that of 
brandy and guns, can be procured for the poor negroes, is the 
foundation of a colony living upon the work of their hands, from 
which in the course of time a second and a third might issue , so 
that by degrees a long chain of such stations might be formed, 
which would serve as a solid basis for civilization, and what must 
precede it, for exploration of these unknown countries. Moritz 
von Beurmann had the immutable intention to spend in the 
service of this idea his considerable wealth as well as all his 

So he set out for Egypt and Abyssinia in February 1860, but 
the political situation of the country hindered a wider extention 
of his journey, when he had reached Massowa, he therefore returned 
to Kairo. His second expedition succeeded better, he was able 
to cross the country of the Bogos, to visit Kassela, Chartum &c. 
and in June 1861 he returned to Germany, This first attempt 
corroborated his views, and he soon set out a second time in search 
of the relics of the unhappy Vogel 26 th Dec. 1861 to obtain by 
this means the moral, pecuniary and scientific assistance of 
German learned societies for his further intentions. Many un- 
favorable circumstances hindered little excursions, so he could 


- 4 - 

not reach Waganga, as he intended, but in spite of bad luck and 
illness he arrived at Kuka in the beginning of September 1862, 
whence he made a visit to Yacoba and to the country of the 
Marghis, though with considerable sacrifices. His last letter 
from Kuka of the 24 th Dec. 1862 informed Dr. Barth of his 
intention to leave this town for Kanem on the 26 th Dec. but the 
march was soon interrupted by^an attack of his servants, who 
robbed him at two days' distance from Kuka, and after a second 
return there, he left it again and for ever in the first days of 
January 1863 against the direct wishes of the Sultan, who earn- 
estly sought to hinder this dangerous undertaking. 

The unhappy man arrived at Mao, about a five days' journey 
from Wadai in the beginning of February and here he was 
murdered , it is uncertain whether by a direct order of the Sultan 
of Wadai or by the private cruelty of an avaricious Governor, 
though the former may be more probable. After the account of 
a native of the Kanem , who gave this report to Mr. G. Kohlfs in 
Kuka, the Governor requested him to visit a town near Mao with 
the intention of having him killed by his companions there or on 
the road in the night. The courage of the traveller frustrated 
this diabolical plan, one of the three assassins was wounded in the 
struggle following the attack, the two others fled, but Beurmann 
himself, who had no choice but to returne to the Governor of 
Mao, in the house of this wretch received the deadly blow, where 
defence was hopeless and escape impossible. 

The hope expressed by Dr. Barth of obtaining a portion of his 
papers and collections has failed till now and presumedly will 
fail for ever. 

Moritz von Beurmann was a tall slender man, with light 
colored hair; his grey eyes, his vaulted forehead and his fine 
straight nose showed a high and quick intellect, his small lips be- 

- 5 - 

trayed a tenacious energy, and the natural force and the exercise 
of his muscles enabled him to undergo considerable fatigues. After 
his first Abyssinian expedition he had suffered very much from 
the fever. — 

His noble zeal brought him a second time into the interior of 
Africa and here he fell, one more German sacrifice for science 
and civilization. Voluit quiescit. 


The old language of Ethiopia has not entirely disappeared, 
there still remain two dialects of it , the TigriSa and the Tigre, 
which are spoken through the northern part of Abyssinia, besides 
the Amharic language, which prevails in the southern provinces 
lying between the Tacazze, the Abay and the kingdom of Shoa. 
The similarity of the Tigr6 language to the old Ethiopic dialect 
is much greater than that of the Amharic tongue, therefore the 
grammatical sketch, which we propose to give, is founded on the 
Ethiopic grammar as well as on the materials of the following 
Vocabulary, which contains about 1000 words and phrases after 
the pronounciation of common people near Massowa. Besides I 
have made use of Munzinger's Vocabulaire de la langue Tigre, 
which forms an appendix to Dr. Dillmann's great Ethiopic dictio- 
nary. As I can dispose only of very scanty materials, the reader 
will not exspect anything perfect, nevertheless I hope, that even 
such a small compilation, as I am enabled to give, will prove in 
some way fit for practical use, and this hope induced me to 
publish my materials in such a form. 

The Tigre language extends over the northern boundaries of 
Abyssinia from the Red Sea to the Gash , and after the accounts 
of the renowned traveller W. Munzinger the nations, which use it, 
are the following: 

1, The inhabitants of the Dahlak islands , 2, the people in 
the plain of Samhar, 3, theHabab, 4, the Mensa, 5, the people 

- 7 - 

of Giimmegan, 6, the tribe Bedjuk, 7, the Marea, 8, the Beni 
aAmr, 9, the 'Algeden, the Sabterat, the Hallenga. Besides these 
tribes also the Bogos, the Takue and the Barea, speak and under- 
stand Tigre, though they have a language of their own. The 
finest pronounciation is found with the Habab. 

The language has no written litterature, there are only rhymed 
popular songs , which are handed down by word of mouth. 

As it would be entirely impractical to employ the Ethiopic or 
rather the Amharic letters in our transcription, because their 
number amounts to 251, we write in this sketch as well as in the 
Vocabulary all words with Roman letters, and we observe once for 
all, that ch expresses the sound of a thick rough h, German and 
Scotch ch , that g has always the sound of g in gold and gild, 
that sch has the sound of English sh (ship) , and that the vowels 
a, e, i, u are to be spoken like a in father, (e) ai in vain, i in 
dim, u in full. Final e is always to be pronounced, and w is always 
to be pronounced as v. 

With respect to the single consonants we notice, that the 
Labials b and m are often negligently pronounced , so that it is 
difficult to state whether the true sound is m or b. Thus for in- 
stance the Arabic medtid ink is spoken bedad, mirsa, anchor, 
brussi and the old Ethiopic sagam is changed into schengeb, left. 

Out of the Palatals, k (Qaf.) and g are no more distinguished 
in the same way as in the Arabic dialect of Egypt. The old 
Ethiopic wadka in Tigr6 sounds wadga and even wotcha, to fall, 
and the Arabic kadum is spoken gadum, axe. On account of this 
pronounciation we express the k (Qaf.) by g. 

Also the two different t and t are not accurately pronounced, 
no difference between them being perceptibe , the t at the end of 
words, especially the Feminines, has the weak sound of English d. 
So instead of zibdet people say zibded, butter. 

The three old Gutturals h, h, h, are spoken like a thick and 
rough h, words once distinguished by these different aspirates, 
have now the same sound. The different old sounds Alf ', the 

- 8 — 

spiritus lenis, and Ajin a, a deeper guttural sound, are entirely 
the same in the modern pronounciation, sdada white, is spoken 
like sada, from the old basawea sorcery proceeds bosd'i, the 
sorcerer, and 'anguea, marrow is to be pronounced Hnge. 

The emphatic Sibilants Saddai and Sappa of the old language, 
which already in the old Ethiopic pronounciation undergo frequent 
changes, are pronounced in different manners, sometimes they 
have the sound dsch (as g in gentle) and the old word , s&we salt, 
'asbaat finger, sounds to day tschaiwa, edschabet, afterwards 
they are spoken like tz, and the old form send smell, is now 
changed into tzena. Also the Arabic bed, egg, in the vocabulary 
is once rendered by bet, another time by bedsch. 

Exemples of the change of I and n are nesdl language instead 
of lesdn, zeldm rain, instead of zendm, sseldm a camels hump 
instead of ssendm. 

I. After these general remarks we enumerate the absolute 
forms of the personal pronouns. They are 

Sing. Plur. 

I, ana We nehna 

Thou mascul. enta You entum 

fem. enti, entissi ? 
He hotu, hu They mscl. hotum 

She heta fem. hetum. 

II. As in all Semitic languages also in Tigr6 absolute forms 
of possessive pronouns do not exist. Instead of them some 
syllables, which are derived from old pronominal forms are affixed 
to the end of the substantives. In the vobabulary I find the affix 
of the first person iye, of the second msc. ka, of the third msc. 
hi, fem. ha, and as these forms agree entirely with the affixes of 
the old Ethiopic language, I give also the terminations wanting in 
the vocabulary, but marked with a cross, to show by this, that 
their form is a conjectural one, which possibly is to be cor- 

These forms are: 

- 9 - 


1 st Prs iye 

2 a Prs. mscl ka fern. fki 

3 d Prs. mscl hu fem. ha. 


1 st Prs -fna 

2 d Prs. mscl f kemu fem. f ken l )? 

3 d Prs. mscl -fhomu fem. ff/on? 

The preceding forms are affixed to the end of the sub- 
stantives, and by this rise the following forms e. g. of umrtm, 

Ummiye my mother fUmmuHa our mother 

UmmuAa thy mother mscl. 

,. , , fUmmuArem your mother 

■fUmmu/a thy mother fem. ) 

Ummu or his mother ] 
fDmmuk, Ummci/ti \ fUmmuAowit their mother. 

Ummufe her mother J 

According to the analogy of the old language it is to be ex- 
spected, that the same affixes are joined to the plurals of sub- 
stantives , but as the vocabulary does not afford examples , from 
which we may judge of the changes in the vocalism of them , we 
do not propose doubtful conjectural forms. 

III. The verbs seem to have but two tenses, the Preterite, 
which is used for the past times, and the Aorist or Imperfect, 
by which the present and future times are designed. In the Am- 
haric language there exists a much greater variety of forms, but 
the Tigr6 has preserved the simplicity of the old Ethiopic 

IV. The terminations of the Preterite are the following: 

*) As in the verbal flexion the 2* prs. fem. Plur. is now lost , perhaps the 
affix ken too is no more in use , and instead ef k&mu people may drop the last 
vowel and speak hum. The same is to be said of homu and hon. This is 'so 
much the more probable , because also in the Amharic language the feminines 
are abandoned. 

Sing. Plur. 

3 d Prs. mscl. ... 3 d Prs. mscl. u (o) 

fem. at fem. a 

2 d Prs. mscl. ka ) „,, _ . , . , 

5 2 d Prs. mscl. and fem. kum 
fem. ki ) 

1 st Prs. ku (ko) 1 st Prs. wa 

These terminations are added to the crude form of the verb, 
which is found in the third Prs. Singl., whose last vowel a or e is 
always dropped before them. Besides the personal pronouns are 
put before the forms of the verbs, and the whole scheme oigesa 
to go is the following 1 ): 

3 d Prs. mscl. hotug^sa He is gone 2 ). 

fem. heta g&s at She is gone. 
2 d Prs. mscl. enta g&ska Thou art gone, 
fem. enti g&s ki Thou art gone. 
I st Prs. ana g 6s ku I am gone. 

3 d Prs. mscl. hotum gesw or geso They are gone, 
fem. hetum gesa They are gone. 

2 d Prs. en turn g&s kum You are gone. 

1 st Prs. nehna g&sna -We are gone. 

V. Verbs whose original old from terminated in ya in the 
third person mscl. Singl. as e. g. re'eya, to see, which is now a 
days pronounced rd, contract the ay or ey before the personal ter- 
mination' in e, and in this way arise the forms: rd he sees, 
f re'eyat she sees , re'eka thou seest , re'eko I see &c. and so 
from halai to sing is derived f/idleyat, haleka &c. The analogy 
of the old language would induce us to conjecture, that those 
verbs , which terminated in wa in the old language , contract the 

') The simple form of the verb is always the third person Sing. Pret. 
which is written in the Vocabulary , but in the English and German words we note 
always the Infinitive because it is the shortest form in our languages. 

2 ) In the old Ethiopic language the word is spelt geiza. 

— 11 - 

syllable mo in o, so that from the modern ssackd to awake (properly 
ssachawa), proceeds ssachoku I awake, but as a great number of 
these verbs have evidently changed their original wa in ya, it is 
more probable, that they have an e before the personal termi- 
nations, and consequently that the form is ssacheku, ssacheka. 
So the modern hale to be, 1 st Prs. sing, haUko answers to an old 
halawa and haloku. 

Verbs, whose second and third consonants are the same, 
sometimes preserve them both, especially in the derived con- 
jugations comp. paragr. XI, sometimes they are contracted into one 
e. g. chdmma to be sick (instead of chdmema) and in these verbs, 
as it is to be presumed after the analogy of the old Ethiopic 
language, the forms chdmmat, chdmmu, c/idmma i ) will always 
be contracted, whilst in chamdmka, chamamki, chamamku, cha- 
mdmna 4 ) the double consonant will be audible. 

VI. The Aorist or Imperfect Sing, was formed in the old 
language by the Prefixes ye 3 d prs. , te 2 d prs., e 1 st prs. In the 
Plural the 3 d and 2 d prs. added u to the corresponding forms of 
the Singular , the first had the Prefix ne. Besides a change of 
the vowels took place. In the modern dialect the prefixes ye and ? 
are apparently abandoned, and thus proceed the following inflexions 
of gesa he is goner 

3 d Prs. hotu ge'isch (instead of yegsaz) He goes msc. 
2" Prs. enta /aga' tsch Thou goest msc. (fm.?) 

1 st Prs. ana ga't'sch I go. 


3 d Prs. hotum ge'isch?* They go msc. 

2 d Prs. entum tege"isclu« You go msc. (fern.?) 

1 st Prs. nehna mege'ltsch We go. 

1 ) Their personal termination begins with a vowel. 

2 ) Where the termination begins with a consonant. 

— 12 - 

VII. "With respect to the mutual change of the vowels in the 
Preterite and the Aorist we repeat the rule of the old Ethiopic 
language , which certainly will form the basis of the changes in 
the modern dialect. The general law is very simple : 1 st verbs, 
whose second consonant 1 ) has the vowel a, change it into e, 
2 d verbs, whose second consonant has the vowel e, change it into a. 
Thus from the old word kdbara, he has buried, is formed yekber 
he buries, of tdbesa , to put on (clothes) yelbds. — But as in the 
modern pronounciation the old a is often changed into e, whilst 
the old e (the sixth vowel) is now spoken 6, ii, i or e, the mutual 
relation between the characteristic vowels of both the tenses 
cannot but have suffered many alterations, and possibly the Aorist 
of the modern gabre to bury and lebsa, to put on, is hotu gb'ur 
or gbor, hotu Ibes. 

VIII. Words beginning with w like worred to descend, wodge 
to fall , in one of both the forms of the Aorist drop the w in the 
old language and form yerdd , yedak from wdrada and wddeka, 
in the other they preserve it yeward, yewddk. As to the modern 
dialect I cannot point out , in what manner these verbs are to be 

IX. Besides the above mentioned form of the Aorist there 
exists still another, where the syllabe igl, egl, gel is put before 
the verbal forms 2 ) , to which is joined the syllabe tu. I am of 
opinion , that this formation may serve to express our Future, 
but this is not certain. The forms I have heard are the following, 
and here the prefixes i, ye and e, Nr. VI, are possibly preserved : 

1 ) For these, who have not studied any Semitic language, it is necessary to ob- 
serve, that all roots consist of 3 consonants, and therefore one may always correctly 
and clearly speak of the changes of the vowel, following the first or the second con- 

z ) But this syllable is wanting in the 2 * prs. Sing, and I s * prs. Plur. , and it 
seems indeed not to be essential to the inflexion. The final tu is wanting too in the 
first person of the Singular. The latter has a demonstrative character, but of the 
meaning of egl I am not able to state anything. 

- 13 - 

3 d Prs. hotu gel-egis-tu (perhaps) he will go &c. 
2 d Prs. enta tegfs-tu 
1 st Prs. ana igl egis. 

3 d Prs. hotum egl-igesu-tu 
2 d Prs. entum igl-tigisii-tu 
1 st Prs. nehna negis-tu. 

X. The Participle past is formed by the insertion of u after 
the second consonant, and beschul means cooked from baschla to 
cook, tabuss roasted from tabsa to roast, muliC full from mel'a to 
fill '). Verbs terminating in e, which is contracted out of the old 
ay, as chase to betroth (old hasaya) , had in the old language the 
form ckeseye, which has been contracted into chese, the betrothed 
(masc.) the Fern, of which is chesit, contracted out of cheseyet. 

The Imperative of intransitive verbs has a after the second 
consonant e. g. Iraf, stay, rest, from tar fa to rest, to remain, 
transitive verbs will probably insert an e. In the Plural the Im- 
perative takes the termination u, if addressed to a woman in 
Sing., the termination is i. e. g. 

nd come. Fem. nasi. Plur. nuau. 
inka take. „ inki. „ inku. 
The Infinitive is formed by the insertion of i after the second 
consonant and so ge'isch would be its form a ). 

XI. In the preceding paragraphs we spoke of the verbs in 
their most simple form and explained the derivation of the Tenses, 
Moods and Persons, as far as we were able, here we have still to 

') The old vocalism of this Participle was e and u, as it is seen in besehill, but 
here the modern pronunciation has the general tendency to deepen the e of the 
first syllable into «, so that mulii' is spoken instead of meM'. 

2 ) From my materials I cannot judge of the other form of the Infinitive, which 
in the old language is derived from this form by addition of St. Such an ot in Tigre 
probably would have been preserved, so that the second Infinitive would be ge'ischot. 
Indeed there are many nomina actionis or Infinitives derived by means of St in Muu- 
zinger's Vocabulary, e. g. tserSt health of tsere to be limpid. 

- 14 — 

treat of those formations , by which the original meaning of the 
not augmented verbal root is subjected to certain slight modifi- 
cations , and we observe in general , that these modifications , as 
they are produced by the same etymological means , have always 
the same sense 1 ). 

A. The first modification is produced by doubling the second 
consonant or lengthening the vowel of the first into a. Forms 
with a doubled second consonant are passives, and from regze 
to wound consequently reggeze is derived which means to be 
wounded, from semaa, to hear, semmesa to be heard. Forms 
with a long « after the first consonant are intensives, and in 
translations into European languages this modification of the sense 
is to be rendered in different manners , as e. g. telme means to 
injure and ttileme the same or rather , to injure violenty . and 
ganche to look, but gdneche to look attentively. There are verbs, 
which are used only in this intensive form as schafefe to fight, 
other words have a different meaning in the simple and in the in- 
tensive form, as degme, which means in this simple form to 
repeat, whilst the intensive form ddgeme is to be translated to 
relate, to narrate. 

B. By prefixing an a to the simple form a causative signi- 
fication is a produced, which we are obliged to translate by an- 
other word , than the simple root. So gancha is to see , to look, 
but ''agneche means to cause to look, to show, belad is to eat, but 
'ablaa means to cause to eat, to give food to. 

C. By prefixing the syllable te or ta to a verb in the simple 
form as well as with a doubled middle consonant or a long first 
vowel forms are produced , the signification of which is either re- 
flexive or passive. The former signification is indeed the primary, 
and the passive meaning is derived from it, but in both the 
senses this form is often used. So from gabre to bury is derived 
tegabbere (with a doubled consonant), in the sense of to be 

3 ) The contents of this paragraph are almost all borrowed from Munzinger's 

— 15 — 

buried, which otherwise is also expressed by gabbere itself, and 
from logme, to bridle, proceeds teleggeme to be bridled. Ex- 
amples of the reflexive or rather reciprocal use of this from are 
leschafefe to fight one against another, from sc/utfe/e to fight 
and teg&neche, to look one at another, from gdneche to look 
attentively. Sometimes the simple and the compound forms 
have nearly the same significations, though there is always a 
slight modification. Thus clellene and fechellene means to think, 
to imagine, but the former may be translated more accurately by 
penser, the latter by s'imaginer. 

D. Also from this reflexive or passive form a new Causative 
may be derived by a prefixed a, and such new words have almost 
the same sense as the simple Causatives with this slight modifi- 
cation, that often also a reflexive sense is involved in them. So e. g. 
lech&lebe means the cow has been milked, and therefrom comes 
utchilebe to order, to cause that the cows are milked, without a 
reflexive modification , but from sarga to steal is derived besides 
nsraga, to order, to cause to steal, a second form atasraga, 
which means , if we analyze it rigorously, to cause to steal for 
one's self. 

E. After these remarks the following scheme of this whole 
derivation will be clear; as we have not all forms derived from the 
same word, we choose different verbs. 

Simple form 
to look 

to be seen 


to look attentively 


to show 



to translate 

to be milked 

to look one at another 

to cause to be 


atamsehe (root maske) 

to cause that some- 
body shows himself 

atgeUele (from gellele) 

to cause the cows to 
be milked 
atchdlebe : 

I. Causative 


II. Causative 

*) The signification of this form with a doubled consonant being almost pas- 
sive, I doubt wether there are Causatives of it. 

- 16 - 

F. Besides these most usual forms, there are still other deri- 
vations like antaltala, to hang up, to suspend, with a prefixed 
an , which has its corresponding form in the old Ethiopic dialect 
and like tasararege, to rob one another, which is a new Intensive 
from f tasarregc, but here we omit them because it is not our in- 
tention to compare the modern and the ancient Ethiopic dialect. 

G. The inflexion of these derived verbs is the same as that 
of the simple form, as far as it is produced by the personal affixes 
or prefixes, but of the changes , which the vocalism undergoes, 
as we may exspect according to the corresponding old forms , we 
are not able to say anything. 

H. The personal pronouns depending on a verb are added 
to it in the form of affixes, and though I cannot but borrow their 
form by conjecture from the old language, nevertheless I enumer- 
ate them on account of their practical importance. In fact it is 
possible, that they may have suffered some changes. 

They are the following: 
Sing. 1 st Prs. me; 2 d Prs. m. 2 d Prs. f. thee; 

ni ha hi 

3 d Prs. m. him; 3 d Prs. f. her; 
1m, o, u ha, a 

Plur. 1 st Prs. us 2 d Prs. you 3 d Prs. them 

na f hum (old kemu) f om f horn (old homu). 
By the composition of these affixes with the verb, such forms 
as the following would proceed: 

regzeni he wounded me regzena he wounded us 
regzeha „ „ thee regzehim „ „ you 

re S Z0 » » him regzom „ „ them. 
As we give this whole paragraph only by conjecture, we 
do not enter into further details. 

I. The vocabulary of M. von Beurmann contains but a small 
number of verbs, therefore the following catalogue of some very 
usual words, which we take from Munzinger and d'Abbadie, may 

- 17 - 

serve as well to complete the vocabulary as to illustrate the verbal 

To approach gerbe, Caus. 'agrebe, 'atdgrebe, to cause to ap- 
proach to bring, to conduct, Refl. legdrcbe, to approach mu- 

To augment 'abzad/a, Caus. of bazcka, to be much. 

To bend, to descend, denne, Caus. 'adnene, to cause to descend. 

Black, to grow, tselme, Caus. 'atsleme, to blacken. 

To bleed, to let blood, chagme (hegiatn), Pass. cJiaggeme, ta- 
chaggeme, to suffer a phlebotomy. 

To bridle logme, Pass, teleggemc, to be bridled. 

Bright, to grow, tsere, Caus. atsre, to brighten. The Infinitive 
or nomen actionis tserot means health, the Participle tsuruy 
clear, sound. 

To bury dafne or gabre, Pass, daffene, gabber e, tegabbere, Caus. 
'agbere, to cause, to order to bury. 

Captivate mareke, Pass, temareke, to surrender. 

To carpet, nadsfe, nadsef'e and ''andsefe. 

To circumcise, koschbe, Pass, koschschebe. 

Cold, to be, bordc, Caus. 'abrede, to make cold, Caus. Refl. *at- 
barede, to cool, to calm. 

To conceal setre, Pass, settere, Caus. 'astere, to cause to conceal. 

To counsel gemse, Pass, gemmeac, to take advice, Caus. Refl. 'at- 
gamese, to bring to reason. 

To cut batke, Pass, batteke, to be cut, Caus. 'abteke, to cause 
to cut. 

To deny nakre. 

To desire, seek, chuze, Caus. Refl. ''atchaze, to cause to seek. 

To dream cholme. techaleme, 'atchaleme. 

To dress lebse, Pass, lebbese, Caus. 'albese, to cause somebody 
to put on his clothes. 

To drink sete, Pass, sette, it has been drunk, Caus. 'aste, to give 

to drink. 


- 18 - 

To eat beha, Pass, belha, Caus. 'alias, to give food to. 

To end, finish 'atmeme, Caus. of tamme, to be perfect. 

To fall wodga, Caus. audaga, to overturn. 

Far, to be rachge, Parte, ruchug, far. • 

To fasten ckadsdse, Pass, chadsdsedse, Caus. Refl. atchadsdsedse. 

To fear farche, Caus. 'afreche, 'atfdreche, to frighten. 

To fight schdfe/e, Rec. teschdfcfe, to fight one against another. 

To find rekbe, Pass, rekkebe, tercMebe, Caus. 'arkebe, to cause 

to find, Rec. terakebe, to find one another, \ilrdkebe, to cause 

to find one another. 
Fill, meCa, Pass. meWa, Caus. ''amid, to fill. 
To fly harbc, 'atlidrebe. 
Foolish, to be, gellele, tegellele, Caus. to cause that somebody 

shows himself like a madman 'atgellele. 
To forget resaa, teresaa, Caus. to cause to forget "atrasaa. 
To give hebe, Caus. \ithebc, to cause to give. 
To hear semaa, Pass, sdmmeaa, Caus. 'asmaaa, to cause to hear 

= to tell. 
Hidden, to be, chaVa, Refl. chabb'a, techabbe'a, to hide one's 

self, Caus. 'atchab'a, to hide, to conceal. 
Humid, to be, lasse, Caus. 'alsese, to make humid, to soak, to 

To injure, telme, tdleme. 
To kill gatla, 'atagtele. 
To kneel (of camels) 'abreke, 'atdbreke. 
Large, to be, tajche, Caus. 'atfeche, to enlarge, to extend. 
To look gancha, Caus. 'agnechc, to show, Pass, ganneche. to be 

seen, Intens. gdneche, to look attentively, Refl. tegdneche, to 

look at one another. 
To make wode (old wadaya) , I have made wodeku , Caus. W«, 

to cause to make. 
To milk chalbe, Pass, challebe,, Caus. 'atchdlebe. 
To number, to count 3a/6e > Pass, aallebe, teafillebe, Caus. 'atsdlebe, 

to cause to count. 

- 19 - 

Open, to be, fatcha, Pass, fattecha, Caus. 'nfteche, to open, Refl. 

tefnteche, to declare war (to open one against another). 
To pack up Iddedc. 
To pass by clialfa, acidde, Pass, chalte/'e, teaiidde, Caus. chalefe, 

'atc/ialefe, to cause to pass by, Nom. miladei, passage. 
Peace, to make taaarrege, aare, Caus. ''atadrege, to cause to make 

peace, to reconcile. 
Perfect, to be, tnmme, comp. to end. 
To praise chnmde, Pass, chammede, Caus. 'atc/idmede. 
To relate dageme, Pass, tedageme, Nom. dogem, story. 
To remove 'arehege, 'alriichege, Caus. of racligc, to be far. 
To repeat degme, Pass, deggeme. 

To rest, stay nebre, Caus. ' amber e to cause to rest, to entertain. 
To rub, scrape ddkeke. 

To saddle maske, Caus. 'amseke, ^atamseke, to order to saddle. 
To seal chatme, Pass, chatteme. 
To seize dsabte, Pass, dsubbete, Caus. \idsbele. 
To sicken chamma, Caus. cliiimmeme, to cause to be sick. 
To speak tezarebe from zer6/i word. 
To spy aeyyene from aaim eye. 
To steal sarga, Pass, sarrege, Caus. 'a&raga, atasraga, Recipr. 

tesararege, to steal from one another. 
To suspect chame, Pass, techamme. 

To swear machle, Caus. 'amchele, to cause to swear, to conjure. 
To think chellene, techellene. 
Thirsty, to be, aeyeke, taeycke. 
To tire, to fatigue aatbe, Pass, aaltebe, to be tired. 
To translate tergeme. 
To wound regze, Pass, reggeze, tereggcze, Caus. ''atragcze; to 

wound to death delme, Pass, delleme. 
An example of the preserved ancient derivation by means of 
osto is 'astuchalleme nocturna seminis effusione pollutus est. 

The personal inflexion of these derived forms is the same as 

that of the simple verbs and the Imperf. of 'timara he knows, is e. g. 


- 20 - 

Sing. Plur. 

3 a Prs. m. hotu 'amir 3 d Prs. m. hotum 'arnint 

2 a Prs. m. enta to 'amir 2 a Prs. m. entum ta'amiru 
1 st Prs. c. ana 'amir 1 st Prs. c. nechna wa'amir. 

XII. The nouns of the Tigre language have two genders viz., 
masculine and feminine and two numbers , Singular and Plural. 
The different means , by which nouns are derived from the roots 
of the language, as a prefixed ma, an affixed i. ami, various 
changes of vowels , cannot be explained here in short, even if the 
collection of words should prove to be sufficient for such a task, 
because an acquaintance with the old Ethiopic language would be 
indispensable for a full understanding of it. Thus we are con- 
tented with an explanation of the forms of the gender and the 
number, which we shall give in the following paragraphs. 

XIII. The masculines are not distinguished by a particular ter- 
mination and semu, the name, abu, the father, bassel, the onion 
are masculines. On the other hand feminines have the termina- 
tion t with vowels at , ut, et, ot and it, whose t has a very weak 
sound like English d 1 ), and consequently ganschid, the halm, 
kenkennit, the paroxysm of the ague, magbaret, the burial place, 
chesit, the betrothed fern., contracted from cheseyet, msc. cliusey, 
the betrothed msc, magzemit, the penknife &c. are feminines. 
So beges means the ram and begaaet, the sheep, adig, the ass, 
edgit, the she ass. 

Examples of adjectives are the following: hankisch, lame, f. 
hankisched, dabass, humpbacked, f. dabassid, so-ur, blind, fern. 
3o-urit, saald, happy, saaidet, adgil, clever, aagilet. Words 
whose second and third consonants are the same as chemum, sick, 
seem to contract them , the feminine of this form being chemmet. 
Thus one says ente chemum , thou art sick , if spoken to a man, 
but, entissi chemmet if spoken to a woman. Besides the formation 

') On account of this peculiarity in the vocabulary, which gives the actual 
pronounciation , d is often written , where etymological reasons would de- 
mand a t. 

- 21 - 

of feminines by means of an affixed t, there is still the other way 
by the change of the second vowel i, sometimes also e, into a. 
Thus for instance are derived 

ssaada white f. of ssaadc 
Immelmal yellow f. of hamelmil 
gayach red f. of gayech 
achdar green f. of achder 
tsalam black f. of tsalitn 
galal easy f. of galil. 
A very unusual form, which cannot be explained by the com- 
parison of the old Ethiopic language, is esckraktere , which was 
said by M. von Beurmann's Tigre to be the fern, of eschrak 

Though the language by means of these two formations, viz. 
the affixed t and the change of the vowel , was able to mark ac- 
curately all feminines, this has not been the case, and many 
words, which are feminines, have no external sign of the gender, 
as e. g. vmmv mother, and on the other hand also masculines have 
the feminine termination t in Sing, and in Plur. So tabdat, a 
male , has the form of a feminine , notwithstanding which /'eras 
tabdat means a male horse, a stallion. 

XIV. With respect to the formation of the Plurals we remark, 
that the two different ways , by which the old language formed 
its Plurals , are preserved. So Plurals are derived as well by a 
termination , as by a change of the whole vocalism of the re- 
spective Singular forms. 

1 st The termination of the Plural of masculines is dn, en, so 
tabaaen men from tabda, male, strong. 

2 a The Plural of feminines is formed by adding the termina- 
tion at to the Singular, e. g. mabel, widower, the second husband 
of a woman PI. mabldt, chessit, bride (contracted out of chesseyet 
= chessuyet) PI. chesmy&t. ''akan, place, PI. 'akdnat, aain, eye, 
PI. auintdt. I am disposed to believe, that this termination is 
also pronounced 6t and even iit, comp. Nro. 3. 

- 22 - 

The same feminine termination is used also for masculine 
nouns, which design an employment, a title &c. So the Plural of 
wakil, the trustee, governor, is waHlal, of mnrsavyt the bride- 
groom, viarsawitnt , where a feminine t is added to the form of 
the Singular, mar3awl(t). 

3 d Some words, as far as we have been able to ascertain, al- 
most always names , by which relation and kindred are designed, 
join a second termination atsche to the simple and regular form 
of the Plur. fern. , which is sometimes in this case pronounced 61. 
So from abu father proceeds a plural ab-ot-titche. The termina- 
tion atsche is nothing but a corrupted modern pronounciation of 
at, which is also to be found in the amharic termination otsch, 
and even in the singular sammetsche aunt, sister of the father, 
instead of sammet. Therefore forms like tib-ot-atsche properly 
have a doubled Plural termination , which is produced by a re- 
petition of the same inflexion, that in the second place has suffered 
a very natural change of pronounciation '). Examples of this form 
of Plurals are: 

Sing. • Plur. 

'ummi mother 'umm-at-atsche 

bismaae grand-son bisms-at-atsche 
sammetsche aunt samm-ot-atsche sisters of the father. 
chal6tsche aunt chal-6t-atsche sisters of the mother. 

But on the other hand there are also words , which have the 
same doubled termination , without the change of the final t in 
tsche, so that the repetition of the same termination is quite 
doubtless. After the final t a slight vocalic sound is to be heard, 
and its change into tsche is to be attributed for linguistic reasons 
to the influence of this sound. Examples are: 
Sing. Plur. 

nasalta sister in law naaalt-ot-ata 

talakma brother in law talakm-ut-ata 

') Also in Arabic there exist secondary forms of Plurals , which are derived 
rom primary Plurals. 

- 23 - 

Sing. Plur. 

'anif nose 'anf-6t-at 

daga fog dag-6t-at 

gane a foreigner gan-6t-at. 

So much may be said of the formation of Plurals by means 
of an affixed termination. 

XV. The second way, in which the language forms the Plural, 
is a change of the whole vocalism of the word , besides in some 
Plural forms produced by this derivation the feminine I is added 
to the word. 

It will be the most simple way to follow in the explanation of 
these so called „bfoken Plurals" the custom of the Arabic gram- 
marians, who take one certain root, consisting of three immutable 
consonants, from which they derive all possible forms by the legi- 
timate changes of the vocalism , without any regard to the real 
occurence of the forms themselves, the whole being nothing but a 
scheme of derivation. Therefore we choose the root l-b-s, which 
means generally to cover and in its special sense to -put on 

1 . The most simple form of a broken Plural in the ancient 
Ethiopic language takes an « after the second consonant and an 
indistinct short vowel e after the first. In the pronounciation of 
the modern dialect the indistinct vowel receives different colors as 
6, a the second a is often lengthened into d so, that the schema- 
tical form Ubds may now be spoken also lobas, I abas. Words 
which take this form are: 

Skin, gorbel, Plur. gcrab. 
Rock, balndt, „ balaq. 
Sandal, 'osn, „ ''asdn. 
Ear, ""ozn, „ \izan. 
Ream for fastening 

the sandals, sckerket, „ scherak. 
Words, which have lost in the Singular their third radical, 
which is always either w or y , generaly preserve it in the Plural, 

- 24 - 

though it may produce together with the preceding vowel a diph- 
thong ei. Examples are: 

Hand 'id (root 'dw) PI. 'idei instead of 'edaw ' ), 'edau. 
Tree aetsdi (root ssw) PI. 'etsckai instead of setschaw, setschau. 
Mouth 'af (root 'fw) PI. 'afei, 'afedsch properly 'afaw 2 ). 

2. The second form of broken Plurals takes a long « after 
the second consonant and a short a before the first. The scheme 
is 'albas. 

Ex. c. Camel, geml, Plur. 'agmal. 
Cloth lebs, „ 'albas. 
Knee bork, „ 'abrak. 
Eoot surr, „ 'asrdr. 
Dung schiffer, „ 'aschfdr. 
A pair of oxen tsumid, „ 'atsmdd. 
The second wife of a man, 

whose first is still living temer, „ 'atmdr. 
Those roots, whose second or third consonant was w or y, 
which is almost always contracted with the preceding vowel a 
into a diphthong 6 ore, restitute the w or y, which cannot be 
contracted, if it is followed or preceded by a long d. Thus e. c. the 
Plural of gbr , neighbour, which is contracted out of gawr, is 
'agwdr, and leclie jaw-bone, from the root l-cft-y, has the Plural 

Examples: Saddle, kor, Plur. 'akwdr. 

Nerve, tot, „ 'atwat. 

House, bet, „ 'abydt. 

Tooth, nib (naib) „ 'anydb, (ainab). 
Sword, seif „ 'aschydf or 'asehdf s ). 

3. The third form of the broken Plural shows a long it, instead 

2 ) Comp. what has been said p. 10. V of the change of an ancient w into a 
modern y. 

2 ) The consonant dsch like j and dg in judge is a product of the original y in 
the same way as the sound of j in judge. 

3 ) The y has been absorbed by the sch. 

- 25 — 

of the long a, which constitutes the character of the second. It's 

scheme therefore is 'albiis. 

Examples : Foal m&ckr, Fern, mochret, PL 'amckiir. 




„ 'asgivn. 



„ 'agriit. 




„ 'agrivn. 



„ 'tidiiy instead of 



„ 'akbiid. 



„ 'agliib. 

Shadow aedl, 

„ 'aadid. 



„ 'af'riis. 

Femal slave 


„ 'a'amiit. 

4. The fourth form has an indistinct short e after the second 
consonant, where the preceding forms have d or ii, consequently 
it. is 'dlbes. Examples of this form are dsdfer. ream, strap, PI. 
'ddsfcr; qabr , tomb, PI. 'dgber; deber, mount, PI. 'ddber, 
tsi/'er, nail, PI. 'atsfer. 

5. The fifth form joins a feminine t to the foregoing, from 'albes, 
therefore proceeds 'albest or albeset, but in words whose root 
terminated in y in the ancient language , which in the modern 
dialect show the contracted termination e, the original form in 
eyt is contracted into it, as also in the Ethiopic language. Ex- 
amples are: leg&m, bridle, PI. 'alogmet; r'as, head, 'ar'est; be's, 
husband, 'ab'est; barai, black cattle, 'aberet; segdd, neck, 
'asigdet; lega, a male calf, 'alegit; kale, kettle, 'aklit; serdd, 
rivulet, 'aschirdet. 

6. The sixth form has besides a feminine t, the vowel a 
both after the first and the second consonant, its paradigm being 
labast. An example of it is merwet, ring, whose Plur. is merdut 
(originally marawt). 

7. The seventh form belongs only to those words, which 
consist of more than three consonants , and all these words are 
derived from a simple root by means of some added fourth con- 

- 26 - 

sonant. They take after the first consonant a short e, after the 
second a long a and after the third again a short e. If we derive 
from lebsa to dress a noun malbns, tegument, gown, its Plural 
will be mcldbes. Plurals of this form are meldtech of meltech, 
cheek; viekdtef of maktaf, shoulder; meg&bir of magbar , burial 
place; sc/teberir of schebrar, water-bag; kandfir of kanfer, lip; 
berdschim of berschiim, the cross-bar of the handle of the sword ; 
'anddir of 'cinder, flute. Feminines of this form drop their t in 
the Plural and from 'antsabet, rope, cord is formed 'anatsib. 
Besides also words, where a diphthong has been produced by a 
contraction of w with the foregoing vowel, take this form and 
restitute the original to as e. c. schokcn (contracted form schawkan), 
PL schuwdkin, a species of Antilopes, kokeb, PL kuvoaklb , star. 
The same restitution certainly will take place in words, where a 
y has been contracted with a foregoing a into e , but I have no 
examples of this form. To this form belong also words like 
dimorrili, PL of dirho, hen, whose a has been deepened into o 
an account of the preceding w and 'atdscH, PL of tischo, a 
wood plate. 

8. The eight forms joins a feminine t to the preceding, its 
scheme is maldbset. Ex. monbad, master, PL mondbait; 'arwe, 
serpent, PL 'arawit; masnei, benefactor, PL masdnit (contracted 
out of masanyet); 'antiei, rat, PL 'andtzit. 

9. Some words take a long d after the first consonant and a 
short one before it, e. g. 'abdgea is the PL of begea, the ram, and 
'undgil, PL of neg el and negelet, goat, m. and f., and welct, 
daughter (from weledt), forms its Plural 'awdlid, daughters. 
Words of this form, which had a final y in the root and an i in the 
old language at the end, seem to abandon it, 'atdl (old 'atdli) being 
the PL of talit, goat. 

10. There still exists a form, which belongs only to the 
modern dialect, and has not been in use in the ancient Ethiopic 
language. Its formation is analogous to the verbal derivation, 
which is visible in tusardrege, comp. p. 16, F viz. words with a 

- 27 - 

double middle consonant, resolve this duplication and insert a 
short <t or e between the iterated consonants. So from dilmmo, cat 
proceeds, demcmmi; from dilnne, a little pot, denenni, and to 
this paradigm belongs also lebebbis, clothes of libs, and schokekkim, 
PI. of sc/wlcm , chin. By a similar way from kolkot basket is 
derived a Plural kolokki with a duplication of the third con- 

11. Besides this form there certainly are also other new 
forms, to which none of the old language corresponds exactly as 
e. g. gvwonni, PI. of gonet, spear, and bnyeld, PI. of baihot, fox 
(Munzinger translates btti/io by jakal) , but we may only mention 
the fact, without trying to enumerate them. 

12. The great number of foreign Arabic words form their 
Plurals according to the Arabic custom , as 'atf'et, a tripod, or 
rather three stones on which the kettle is put, PI. 'atafi, and I 
believe, it is the influence of the Arabic language , by which the 
Abyssinians have been induced to form the Plural of Feminines 
by a simple change of the gender viz. by dropping the feminine 
termination et. So gimet cloud has the Plural gim (,**£) and 
'adongelct, which is explained by kidney bean, \idongel. In the 
same way also natscCif is derived according to the Arabic law 
from nutsf'u (partic. pass, of nats/'e to be dry) which means a cow, 
that has no milk, and 'adschadig from dschidg, cheek, has also an 
Arabic feature. 

XVI. From the preceding theoretical enumeration of the 
different manners, by which in Tigre the Plurals are formed, it 
is evident, that here the practical acquaintance with the language 
will do the best, and that practice is the only way, by which the 
forms of the Plural to every Singular can be learned. Finally we 
observe that in our schematical forms, 'alb&s, 'albiis &c. the 
vocalism of the ancient language has been adopted, instead of 
which the modern dialect apparently shows many alterations. 
These belong generally to the old short e and a. which now a. 

- 28 — 

days have suffered many changes, by which the modern pro- 
nunciation of Tigre is nearly brought to a similar condition with 
respect to the litterary Ethiopic language, as the modern English 
pronounciation to its written archetype. Here Munzinger under- 
took to represent the actual vocalic pronounciation of some 
forms in Amharic letters , an experiment , we cannot approve of, 
because the historical origin of the modern pronounciation by this 
way is rather darkened than elucidated 1 ). On the contrary we 
believe , it will prove to be the best way for writing the Tigre 
language to follow the ancient orthography without hesitation , as 
we do in English , for the native Tigres certainly will correctly 
pronounce the so written language, and as to foreigners, an 
accurate rendering in Roman letters is sufficient, as it is in our 
Persian, Turkish and modern Arabic dictionaries. By preserving 
the historical orthography one will facilitate the comparison of the 
modern and old language , from which European scholars , who 
desire to study Tigre, naturally should begin, if they ever will 
succeed. Only the changes, which belong to consonants d (dsch), 
n (ng), s (sch) &c. necessarily are to be expressed in writing by 
means of the Amharic letters. We recommend this observation 
to missionaries and other persons , who may possibly be disposed 
to write Tigre, as the Rev. C. W. Isenberg has done, whose trans- 
lation of the New Testament in Tigre exists in the Royal library 
at Berlin. 

XVII. The numerals are as follows: 

in Massaua. 

in Adaua. 

1 hante' 


2 kille 


3 tsales 


4 'arbas 


5 chamus 


6 suss 


1 ) Those who will compare the TigriS words of the following vocabulary with 
the corresponding Ethiopic forms will find the truth of this remark. 

29 - 

in Massaua. 

in Adaua. 

7 sebeae 


8 tsaman 


9 tisses 


10 sassur 


11 aassur u hante 

sassertu u had6 

12 aasser u kill6 

sassert' u killed 

20 saschrin 


" 30 talatin 


40 'arbasin 


50 chamsin 


60 sittin 


70 sabsin 


80 themanin 


90 tisain 


100 miye 


200 mi'etain 

killeti mieti 

1000 'alf 


2000 'alfain 

killeti schech. 

The Cardinals are tbe following: gaddm, gaddem, the first, 
kala'i, the second, dachra'i, the other, the second, s&lis, the 
third, rdbia, the fourth, \chamis, the fifth, sddis, the sixth, 
sdbia, the seventh, f sdmin, the eight, tdsis, the ninth, sdsar, 
the tenth. 

The formation of the Multiplicatives is exactly the same 
as in English by means of 'ogdt or ugdt, PL of wagt, which means 
times, three times is therefore tsdles 'ugdt, six times suss 'ugdt 
&c. Besides instead of \igat also dol (old dawal, limit) and sdse 
(hour) are used and Mile dol, means two times, twice, kam sdse 
re'eka, how many = kam, times = sdse, re'eka, hast thou 
seen. A fourth expression is formed by tiscka, cltamus tischa, 
means five times, but I cannot explain the origin of this word. 

The numbers of fractures are sorr or ferraga, one half, 
temum (?), one third, rubs or rubeai, one quarter, and after this 

- 30 - 

scheme, I suppose, also the following numbers will be derived so 
that chums, means one fifth, suds, one sixth &c. 

XVIII. Finally we believe, it will not be useless to collect 
a number of the most necessary particles , for which as for many 
other particulars of this grammatical sketch the reader is indebted 
to Munzinger's and d'Abbadie's vocabularies. 

Adverbs of time: 'amel, 'eyom, to day; gezem, fangech, to 
morrow; degim, at a future time; \ibadd, for ever; female or 
male, yesterday; char or min char, after; hd/d, not yet; 'eska, 
'assik, till; maz, when? 

Adverbs of place: lasl, over, on, upon; ba'i, in, within; 
Idcht, below, under; dongob, gerra, behind; godor, besides; 
'etei, where?; 'enzi, here; ken, there below; 'eska lel/d, till 
there; min ay a, from where, whence. 

Besides we notice: kam, like; kemd, also, still; 'a git, bagit, 
quickly; kan, enough; mesech , in vain; 'eche, an injection of 
surprise; 'aha and aivoa, yes. 

The negation is 'i, which is prefixed to be verb, 'i-dmir 
(spoken 'iyamir), I do not know; 'i-jdl, there is not; 'i-falna 
(spoken ei-falna) , we are not. 'Alabu means there is not. Why 
and how are 'afu or 'u/'tt. 

XIX. Some demonstrative and interrogative pronouns, which 
have been omitted above are: mi, what?; 'aya, which of...; 
lechci, this. 

Besides the expression of Possessives by pronominal affixes to 
the nouns , comp. p. 8, II , also the same circumlocution as in the 
ancient dialect by means of a relative pronoun , to which these 
affixes are joined , seems to be still in use. The relative is zi, 
which means litterally that of, it takes the pronominal affixes 
eye, ka &c, and so f zVaka contracted into f zcka is that of thee 
= thy, fzi'ahan contracted inte zeknm that of you = your. 
So ssa nim zeknm, which is translated p. 71 good evening, is to be 
analyzed litterally ssua = saae, hour, nim = neaim, happy 
zeknm, that of you, and the whole is: Good hour, time that of you. 

— 31 — 

XX. Prepositions are: misl, with; 'obi, ah, bi, by means 
of, with; la, to; min, from: examples of which will be found 
p. 71. 

XXI. With respect to the syntax we have but little to 
remark, viz. 

1. The Genitive has no proper form, nor has the word on 
which it depends a particular termination, as was the case 
in the ancient dialect. So ssit wife and uclm, brother being 
connected in ssit uclm , mean wife of the brother, sister in law, 
vod, son, and hetsche, sister, in the form wod hetsche, son of 
the sister, nephew. Nevertheless the ancient termination a (e) 
of the first word seems to be preserved in some cases e. g. bete 
ssararit egg of a bird from bet egg, and aba aim., grand-fathex*, 
litterally father of the father. 

2. The accusative, which seems as well to precede as to 
follow the verb, has no more its particular form terminating in a, 
and so one says: aarab ta'amir, doest thou understand Arabic? 
yelll 'amir, I understand a little; but on the other hand the 
Accusative has the second place in 'I- amir 'ne gari, I cannot 
read, where the Accusative gari depends on 'amir, I know. 

3. Adjectives follow their nouns in all examples , of which 
I can dispose, as bust tin mbi, a great garden; bet vgul, a high 
house; feras degub, a strong horse. 

4. In the conjunction of adjectives with nouns I observe a 
syllable tu, which is joined to the adjectives , though it does not 
belong to their simple form. Ex. mesdch. kejotu, bad food, from 
mcsach, food, and ku/ii, bad; awola galiltu, cheap price, from 
awola, price, and gulil, little. I am not able to ascertain, whether 
this tu is a simple affix of a demonstrative character, by which 
the meaning of the adjective is scarcely changed or an abbreviated 
form of hotu he. If the latter be correct, the words mesdch 
ke/'otu should be translated the food is bad, as the pronouns lie 
and she, hotu and hetta possibly may compensate the copula after 
the custom of other Semitic languages; but tne ancient dialect 

- 32 - 

has many such affixed little words, and so the first opinion seems 
more propable. 

5. In the simple sentences, where the copula, is not ex- 
pressed by halai, to exist, to be, the Subject has the first place, 
the Predicate follows and consequently ana tagier, means I am 
rich, ente chemum, thou art sick, masc. entissi cliemmetj thou 
art sick, fern, hotlu saaid, he is happy, hetta adgilet, she is clever, 
'abu gorun, the father is good, nefds kufu, the weather is bad. 

Glossar der Tigresprache, 

wie sie bei Massaua gesprochen wird. 


Supper Abendbrot, l_&_e; drar S"ZiC: spate 

Topurge,cacare Abfiihren, purgiren, ^5*^.5 chara. 
To depart Abreisen, »jLw; er ist abgereist, hottu 

To descend Absteigen, ^ Jjj; ivorred (DZ^Jf." 

To refuse Abweisen, _j|; 'aba hD.Pl 

Arm-pit Achselhohle, Jaj| oder iob; hibbet. 

Bread fruit tree Adansonia digitata, Affenbr tb aum, 

gongoles; habhaba. 
To add Addieren, -p; giumla, wohl denominat. 

von sJ^s>. 

To resemble 
Ear of corn 







Adresse, ^jQ-c.; leltvdn. 

Aehnlich sein, xLi; messla <3°ti&.'.'elhed. 

Aehre, J*^JL«; hascher AUJCI stipula, und 
wiiUa. medullae expers hordeum. 

Aermel, "S, ^LSl, kum. 

Alles, J^; kullo TP-A-: mit suff. 3. ps. sgl. 

Alt, *-sOu>; 'aber, vgl. h&Q'. vetula. 

Alter, Ji; \omr. 

? A m e i s e , J^i ; gomal, **^&. : pediculus = 

Andere, der, j~».|; acher. 

To accept 


A sort 'of bed- 

To stop 

To arrive 
To tar 


To put on 
Work, task. 

- 34 - 
Annehmen, den Brautpreis, gabdl jag- 


balha =■ LgJjJu he took her. 
Anfang, oljCol; stebda, (JlIzII. 
Angelhaken, "iXLa, c^L ; sa/rit, vgl. 

&<£Q' opus tortile, od. &?Z.C^: laqueus 

bei Ludolf Addenda. 
Angereb, aus Lederstreifen und Dattel- 

stricken geflochtene Bettstelle (Ruppell 

Reise in Nubien p. 40, schreibt Ankareb), 

iarrat, UZn't: lectus. 
An halt en, stehen bleiben, t_ii\; betar. 
Anker, olkis?; brussi, mit Wechsel der 

Labialen aus ^wj; den Anker werfen, 
to cast anchor oLksJl _*. ; tura brussi, 
tar a is probably the Arabic Jo. 

Ankommen, Jloj ; bas'ha &&&'. 
Anstreichen, das SchifiF mit Theer, 


; rantsch. 

Antilope, die von den Amharern Agasen 
genannte Antilopa strepzicerus {kudu); 
Gnellet; Antilopa pygmaea, ^vjJo ~>t; 
mantaU, <P?1-A: vgl. hare Haase; Ariel, 
Antilopa leucoryx, arab ; Antilopa addax, 
&o\^\ yb; beeza; -flOH: Tatelantilope 
(Ruppell Tedal), total Junger Ariel, Scho- 
kan, young Ariel. 

Anziehen, ^j^J; kbis, A-flfl: 

Arbeit, Ja*o ; schogul; to labor, to work 
a r b e i t e n , £ Jju^I ; ischtagul und betne- 
dach, vgl. iJ?7h: impulit und pass. -ir}R-&: 

- 35 - 
Arm Arm (brachium), cCt>; ?'<&?, KS 1 : Armband, 

bracelet Sy*i'i tekket. 

Poor Arm (egenus), jjJ£i; fagir. 

Jacket with Aermeljacke, kurze, weite, «U=>; gubba. 

Albanian soldiers Arnauten, Arante. 
Physician,Doctor A r z t , |*aJC=> ; hakim. 

Breath Athem, (_p*ij; tin fas, einem nacb Dill- 

mann Grammatik S. 187 vorauszusetzen- 
den ttljji'. entsprechend. 

Atlas Atlas, { j M lio\ ; Alias. 

Partner Associe, dbw«i; scharik. 

To untie, to open Aufknupfen, viij ; fetach, AtA: 

To load upon Aufladen, <).♦£».; hamal. 

To strand Auflaufen, vom Scbiffe auf Felsen, JaJ 

£ ; hagiem, |V suc, 

7 o rise, Aufstebn, As; galass. 

To awake Aufwachen, iiiuZwl; ssacha, /ffh©: 1 ) 

To lift up (the Aufwinden, den Anker, oLk^xJt «Jb>; 
anchor) ekschah. 

Eye Auge, ,j^£; ainl, DJB?: eye-brow Augen- 

braue, v _^=»Ls. ; handschib, mit Einsatz 
von N ; eye-lid Augenlid, ^wi^- ; konuff, 

vgi. 5i?4;: 

To unload Ausladen, ^yi «>-;■=»•'; »<^^i vgl. i*A." 

evulsit und JjLi transportavit. 
To repose Ausruben, L£»J; istera. 

To put off ones Ausziehen, die Kleider, ^Jui; fessich. 

l ) Auch Vulgararabisch <~^} impf. ^^.i in dieser Bedeutung. 


— 36 - 
Advanced guard Avantgarde zuPferde, jJiXi' JU-l^a. ^£**c ; 
hajil, vgl. IXk: und Arab. jUi- Reiter, 

COll. sJLIia.. 

#«/^/ Axt, ^U; /a*, amhar. 4.^ in Halhal 

geddib "hF-a: 


6%^& Backe, i>^<\& (pi. von lX~*); da gum. 

Bath (warm) Bad, warmes, ..Q^; »«<&' wuiui = <^JB : 
(D*tKE: warmes Wasser. 

Ballast Ballast, ^pUo, ^>-y>i tarm x ~). 

Ribbon Band, JUcils.; che'itan, Jajyi. (vgl. ^JEiH : 

decepit eigentl. irretivit und "Vl?.' 

Tapeworm Bandwurm, ,jJidl So.o; «"«/. 

Barber, to shave, Barbier, ,viLa.; /«*<?', vgl. A.9P : l&sse ? 
^A2: Scheermesser, mel&sse ? 
Bart, ^'6; zachiim, &fo.<£>\ 

Barfuss, ^Las.; hafjan. 

Barke, sembuk, vgl. .JCaju*, bei Meninski. 

Battist, tarabesun. 

Bauholz, LuJl ■_■ b — ; tetschai, O&IBaum, 

v^ui ; \atschai, ebenso Holz. 
Baumwolle, (jJas*; ottub ; cotton-stuff, 

Baumwollenzeug, gazil (Jye allgemein 
B e e i 1 e n , c ~J ; scheffdg, K&A& '. frequen- 
ter, crebro fecit. 


Bark, boat 
Timber tree 


To hasten 

i) (j^-U, in der Barbarei ^yi, bedeutet cabestan, Schiffs- 
winde (s. Humbert, Guide de la Conversation arabe, S. 128). 

37 _ 

To meet Begegnen, ^S; taalefo ; vgl. h'i A A. : 

transire fecit, und davon das reciproke 
■TSAZ.: welches bei Ludolf nicht von 
i_iJL&. stammt, sondern von i_aJUa. . 

Companion, fol- Begleiter, ^j+iy, mallei, Participialbildung 
lower von "I"A (D : = <P w f\(D n '. 

To bury Begraben, «^j>: gabara, QUI,'. 

Leg Bein, J^a.. , ^jL*; iggir, KlC.' 1 ) browsers, 

Beinkleider, Jf.~*; serwal, scherwan. 

Knowledge Bekanntschaft, Kenntniss, Xiow; marifa. 

To touch Beriihren, (j**+J; hessasu, "iVSW. quaesivit, 


Circumcision Beschneidung, kischbo. ath. 5lfi£lrt" : 

To pay Bezahlen, u«aJL=»; sellim, vgl. zhti. 

Beer Bier, xis^j; marissa, vgl. ^HC." Bier 

ohne Hopfen. 
Cheap Billig (d. h. wohlfeil), ijaj^y, rachis , awola 

galillu, vgl. *A.A. '. Awola scheint Preis 

zu bedeuten, s. theuer. 
Bit, morsel Bissen, X+id; loqmat. 

Bitter Bitter, "Jo; marir <P&Q'. 

Leaf Blatt, ^y, woraq. 

Lead Blei, yoCoy rosas. 

Remain Bleibehier, J£\j;nesu 1 -traf,-1:Z,£'.resta,ve, 

Blind Blind, ^*|; i0-wr,ti(D.C:(arab.^!einaugig.) 

Blood Blut, »<>; «ferc, J?<p: fo scarify Blut ziehen, 

juai: mahegiam, vgl. ^ schropfen. 
Z?ow, //te Bog en, ^y\ tinschabP) 

!) Auch im Vulgararabischen ys»\ statt tN=*)- 

2) Vielleicht verwandtmit JoLio, Pfeil, w*-cob, BogenscMtze. 

38 — 


Wound caused 
by burning 
To roast 


Epistle, letter 
Bring hither 




Bohne, J.j; /id. 

Branntwein, ^-f.', wraqi. 

Brand wunde, SslL; ssathargatu, tx^A'- + 

Br ate n, ^^,; tebass, mflft: roast-meat, 
der Braten, ^JLo ; tabuss, 'PfMl." 

Braut, jo^kis?; hessit, fhRjf. bridegroom 
Brautigam, ,_. *U^ ; hase-ala, msc. des 
vorigen mit der Praeposition A, weil 
LgJ ._.,U^\,I| gefragt wurde, dah. /hif.K: 
Braut ist auch marat, d^Cit- 

Brief, ^yXSCo; sahaf, &Jx-^'. scriptio. 

Bring her, «ylso; hamsi. A<?°i?2i: 

Brot, gesauertes, hemus, vgl. rh<?°"H: und 
>.«-. acri sapore fuit, s. sauer; unleavened 
ungesauertes Brot, y>Jaj; feltir ; thin cakes, 
Brot in dtinnen Fladen auf Eisenblech 

gebacken, lohlbh, vgl. *L kucheuahn- 

liche Brote, idLlL iCl^. trocknes Brot 
white bread, weisses Brot tU+*J! yJ*. 
hembesit ssada, •S-flfi^ : 8.0J?: s. weiss 
old baked bread, altes Brot, tellit ; new- 
baked, frisches Brot, ipsit. 

Brust, ^tXo; nehar, vgl. ihiZ,'. -^; weib- 
liche Brust, tit y> ; tob *M1, plur. atbai, 
A'PQ*: s. Euter, udder. 

Biichsenmacher, ^s^dj^; bendukgie. 

Bucklig, o^tX^; dabass. 

Butter, ii&ly, zibdet ; zerlassene, melted 
^j+j«; hessas. 

— 3y 

Dead body 



Cadaver, &*#&•; gennaset, vgl. liW. pol- 

linxit, arab, avl^ Leiche, Leichnam. 
Citrone, ^yn^'i Umun. 

Compass, &JLo.j ; dira, diret. 
C o r s a r , ^Loyi' ; njam, m-haissa, vgl. /h PA .' 
intente speculatus est doli faciendi causa => 

Gut, bowels 
Dates, dry 




Ink-horn ; ink- 


Thread, wire, 


Darin, jw; amev'd. h^i^ht'. viscera. 

Datteln, getrocknet, j+3; tammer ; in 
the form of a great cake, in einen 
Fladen zusammengepress t, arabisch 

aguar 'iy^A (s. Bocthor unter Datte), 
maagiun, vgl. ^j^a to knead kneten, 
,j»s3um dough, Teig und 0$3 : vom dick 
sein benannt. 

Dechsel, krumme Hacke, |»«Jw>; gadutn. 

Dick, ijujd; gasif 7B.4J: 

Dinte, otJuo; bedad, Verwechselung der 
Labialen, s. Anker. 

Dintenfass, XjI.o, dauaje. 

Dolch, y&slL] sotel. fiXD"f&: 
Dose, xLLc ; hoga, arab. Ma> . 

Drath, jli'; gera. 

Dunkel, das, damana. S<S°5l'. Wolke. 







To envelop 

Ell, yard 


— 40 — 

Durra, s.o; durra; reife Durra, gekocht, 
Food of ripe durra balila (von balla essen); 
unreife Durrah grob gestossen und gekocht 
als Zuspeise Food of unripe durra genossen, 
schauid. WET. Durramehlbrei, Pap of 
durra arab. lugm genannt, gaad. 


Edelstein, j*V?>; fis (arab. (jai), sejaga 
(arab. aLe-LLa?), 'achbab. 

Eibisch, hibiscus esculentus, iLyoLj; bdmije. 

Eidechse, kleine, pL^. , Chamaleon, 
ssafan; a greater species, grosse Ei- 
dechse jj.dws.; galgal. 

Eier , \joj$ ; bedschdraui, zsgs. von u*Lo + 
dirho, .ECU'' hen, Huhn. Vogeleier heissen 
bete sararit in Halhal = \ja+> + UJZnZr : 

Einaugig, \j&\', hante ainie ourde ; hante 
ist one, eins AAK.I 

Einarmig, *xf\; hante adchu; Arm, ide + 
suff. 3 sgl. msc. 

Einladung, jw.ya; lasuma. 

Einwickeln, ^sf; kaffan. 

Ekelhaft schnieckend, linabra labolil, vgl. 

Elephant, Joo; harbmds. 

Elfenbein, -At; idg. 

Elle, cUi>; dra\. 

Ellenbogen, ^, pi. ^1*^; minkub, 

<PY<\-f\X *:wasLudolfaus^jCLo humerus, 
armus erklart. 

Eltern, ^JjJt^; woleden. 

Erbe, e>^; maris, plur. ebenso, <DAi\: 

To vomit 

Fatigue, wear- Ermtidung, 

- 41 — 
Erbrechen, ^>; gai, *JE&: 

; taiab. 







To fall 





Esel, »U&.; adig, hJFl'. she-ass 'Eselin, 
»vUa> ; edgii, AMf : to cry like an ass, to 
bray, wie ein Esel schreien, ^j^j ; nahiek. 

Essen, das, ^ks.\ belleh, •fthX}^'. he eats, 
er isst, hottu belleh. fMCK Bad food 
schlechtes Essen, mesach kefotu, vgl. 
<?°i"ijh: und bad, schlecht kufu. 

Essig, J^; chal. 
Eunuch, ^i|Jo; tauaschi. 

Euter, L; atbai, vgl. /Hflfl) suxit, IHi: 

breast, Brust. 


Fade im Geschmack, Ju«L (?) ; bodeg. 
Faulniss, sjJt&; muschmusch, rad. &l(ii'. 

putruit, vgl. 'i^JLjo confusio operis. 
Fallen, *s. ; wotcha, (DE"*." oder ?w/^0 

Familie, Jo&l; ahelu. 
Far be, ^J; Ion, laun. 
Faust, jodAi'; dschgama. 
Feder, JLi'; qallarn, <&A<?°: 7b cut the pen 

Federn schneiden, ^jj; gassim,1Y{cP'. 

Federinesser, S+m', qallamije, magsemil=> 
WK<f>^". welches bei Ludolf fehlt. Fea- 
ther, wings, Vogelfedern, &iio . ; agnaf 
WAS<\ pUir. von 5124:: 

Feigen, jj-u; &«. 

Feile, i>Jyo; mabrat. 

- 42 










To twist, she 


Fly the 


Navy, fleet 

Feind, ^J^; abai, vgl. OIKE." superbus; 
wenn nicht zu AflP." 

Fenster, jtsLb ; bennur. 

Fernrohr, s.lkj; nadur. 

Ferse, ^s.s. ; tschikaret. (\H1L,\ incessit). 

Vielleicht ist es verhort, vgl. ilf^f : 
Fett, dick, K! y^*,\ hous, /ME"H: suavis? 

Fieber, xI^Jxl; hommet, ^^", in x+a. 

verwandelt, vgl. xtuT 3 ^: chillness Fieber- 

s c h a u e r , iLka. « ; kenkennit. 
Finger, «a-oI; dschabeei, edschawe plur. 

edschabet, AtfQO*: A/ifl-O: 
Fisch, viJU^; «w«, ^IH: Fischer, oLuo; 

#«#/ <m«, QOA: + assa, -fisherman. 

F 1 a g g e , bandira =■ slj jjj , vulgararab . aus 
dem ital. bandiera. 

Flechten, sie flicht, JlJoJ*; gedellet. In 
der alten Sprache ■t - 3XA = J^Lao lucta- 
tus est, eig. sich verflechten. ' 

Fleisch, *J>; w<?y«, WD: /}/?#/, ^n'erf 
wz /Ae air, an der Luft getrocknet, 
JotXi'; sirsero; Meat in long strips in 
Streifen geschnitten, arab. scher- 
muta genannt; baliku, vgl. Jtt , l , ¥l: la- 

ceravit; Broth, Fleischbriihe, «SCo; 

Fliegen, die, ^Ci; dschanadschit, #?6P: 

pi. Af^l-: 

Floh, yijjio; tuk&n. 
Flotte, s\l+c ; sauai. 
Fliigel, ~ds, soil wohl heissen Gefliigel; 
kommf 5ll4l : ala. 

- 43 - 

To go away 

Field, country 




Ring as an orna- 
ment of the an- 
cles of Arabic 


Fortgehn, {S »ojo; gis 16H: 

Frau, s*yo|, i\yx; essit, KitA'. aus ansit 

zusainmengezogen, denn der plur. ist annis. 
Freies Feld, ib*; kadden, 1X<?>\ 
Fremdenhaus, ,jU>; beet krai, fl/P: + 

einer durch Metathesis aus 2PZ,: ent- 

sprungenen Form. 
Fruhstuck, vJai; fattur. 
Fuchs, ^Jjii; baihot. 
Fiihrer; marra, von <3°C5i" 

Fussspangen, J^i^ia.; hegiil, arab. JJfc. 

Fussknocbel, ^jf; gared elgir. vgl. iggir, 
MC: Beiu. 

To give 
She bears 

To go on foot 





Galle, IjJuo; gai-i, <£.Eih: ruber. 

Geben, haba, ©Ufi: 

G e b a, r e n , sie gebiert, «y jj . ; woladut 


G e b i s s (am Pferdezaum), J^L ; legiam, k"X<P '. 

Geben zu Fusse, ^&jo; aba agru geisch, 
scheint aus gis lOHl mit ba'egru 
IlTilC" zusammengesetzt; to go slowly, 

langsam gehn, ^iaj, abugrutkagis => itis- 
saeni. Statt A wird aba, abi gesprochen, 
vgl. in dem Gesprach abi higa in der 
Spracbe von tahage sprecben. 

Gehirn, il^O; hangal. 

Gebor, «I^; semu', ft<3°*0: vgl. iif*^'. 

Geier, w*o; hobai, UTIJ2: inrtvog, milvus. 

_ 44 — 














Gekocht, ^y^euo; beschul, -flft-A.: 

G e 1 b , JLa I ; hamelml, iem.hamelmal-KPk&lk I 

Gelenk, Juajix>; rmfsel. 

Gem a hi, yy, be'issa, vgl. -Q2iJfl.: Ge- 

mahlin, spouse &=»j}; ssilu, vgl. Frau, 

essit, plur. ansu. 
General, La|; aga. 
Gerste, *juui; scha\ir. 
Geruch, x^»; tzena, &i". a bad odour 

schlechter Geruch, kXXmo &=£» ; tzena- 
kui=>&>1\ MKE: a good odour guter 
Geruch, XaaIs x=£s ; gorum. Vielleicht ein 
Missverstandniss, vgl. lUf'- venerabilis. 

Geschlecht, Art (j**a=-, gins. 

Geschliffen, schleifen, J^«; mashal von 

Geschmack, **So, ^'o\ taum, "!<)<?*'. 

Geschwiir, xJUoiS; megl, <P1&\ pus. 
Geschwulst, »»,; ^e#w/, ihfl'P.' 
Gesicht, Jaj; ««<s?#r = Jai, vgl. i&£: 
short-sightedness kurzes Gesicht, jjyai' j&j 

nadru huttu. 
Gewehr, |VjuL»; benduq, neft\ }*C£'. 
Gewinn, j>-?), (^-^»Joo; kasban. 

Glasflasche, s'vtjj'; gara'ir (eig. plural 
von »^ Us, Glasgefass, statt vJ>Uj')> Glas 
zum Trinken j^K", kas. 

Glatt, [ jli; lamist,A<f*W planum fuit, &&*&'. 

l ) iaM, Naphta, ein sprachlicher Ueberrest aus der Zeit des 
Gebrauches des Naphta als Projectils im Kriege. 

- 45 - 

Happy Gliicklich, (Xfjua; sa'id. 

Gold Gold, ^j»6; dahab, worq. <DC$* Gold- 

smith Goldarbeiter, «jLo; zdig. 
Tomb Grab, y3; kabber in der alten Sprache 

<39*nc*: u. *qc: 

Straight Grade, **££*** ; rvatata ; straight on grade 

aus, dugri 1 ). 

Gray old man Greis, )«^e; abet; ebenso plur. und fem. 
s'j^sxc, vgl. AO>C' In Halhal dag eg en 
deglel, plur. degalil. Der weisshaarige 
Mann, v_*jLi, scheba (vgl. flffl^":) und 
plur. schajab =• HP -fl : 

Great, tall Gross, lang, Jo Jo; regim, abi, OflJE: 

Green Grlines, Ij-tdis.; chodra; griin, ■, ^M] #tf^- 

<fer, fem. achdar. 

Gum Gummi, iCJo\ asha. 

Good Gut, gorun ll^f 3 '- saleh ^>JLo. 


Hair Haare, jl&; tschigget; dschiggar, A'hC 

ebenso die Thierhaare, o. . 
C^y Hasslich, ^.j^\ abi, das Arab. ^ 

■ selbst mit Aufgabe des ,j ; Z«;?^ Aegypter, 

deutsch von Zenker, II, p. 14. 
Half Halb, oL^j; *«>, ferraga, vgl. jjji, ob- 

gleich diese Wurzel im Geez nur = _dj-3 

erlosen vorkommt. 
Halm, stalk Halm, ^y3, gandschid. 

») Tiirkisch-Arabisch ^-tJa, ^y^yO • 


Collar, a little 


To traffic 





To marry 

Hase, ^ijf; mantale, <f 3 1i'A>'. vgl. Antilope 

Halsband, kleines, JJLe; meschchas ,' 
a great one, grosses, bis zum Boden 
reichendes, jJa; meschachis. 

Hammer, Xj'Jax; matraga. 

Handteller, JuJt ^JS\ erhad 2iZiiih : plur. 
ftLi'h^t' '. back of the hand Handriicken, 
arde; right hand, rechte Hand, ,j-£+aJ I Jo ; 
m&n, verkiirzt aus Y&£i\ left hand, linke 
Hand, JU^iJ! Jo; schengeb, W3<P'. durch 
den Nasal erweitert. 

Handeln (mercari), ^saj'; taggier, sogub. 

Harnblase, xJlJLo, £-!(»-? ; minnefallud; 
Urine Ham, (La ; mai, "9JB '. 

Hauptstrasse, , > t-» 1 ■■■ l | (> j_j>Jo ; stf^ 

Haut, JLl=»; yz'#, in Adaua gorbet, vgl. 
^Otf^: cortex; to skin die Haut ab- 
zielien, hJ*2, ~s.Lv ;garbotufefgir,&essen 

erster Theil = gorbet. 
Hayfisch, «;-#<?, AC*: welches, wie es 
scheint, einen sehr weiten Begriff 

hat; auch der Delphin, Ju^jo, n**I>.t>, 
heisst so. 

Hazardspiel, xiJJs; komar, .Us. 

Hebamme, ib|t>; machrassit von &rhZ.UJ : 
plur. machariss. 

Heirathen, "i ; &;'«,?« ©fill: (?) oder 

denominat. von -£l2iflL : vgl. Gemahl. VieU 
leicht ist eins von beiden Wortern un- 
richtig und '*? mit 1.°^ verwechselt. 

— 47 — 

Shirt Hemde, (jo***; qamiss. 

Stallion H e n g s t , Jlsxj ; /eras tabaat, Z.Z,ti '. "t Q<j ^ : 

d. i. mannliches Pferd. 
Autumn Herbst, ob^; awul. 

Heart Herz, v_Ui - ; /&!#, A-fl! J_J. 

Sorcerer Hexenmeister,* LsuL ; fo.?^, vgl. fl&CD'O : 

nehabai, vgl. iVfl.: faber; Hexe, bos Ait, 

Lame H ink end, -.*cl; hankisch, /hS'Qjfo: 

Hinderquarters Hintere, der, ^i.|; gora, daharai X'Zln'R'. 

the hindmost, derHintere, podex, -jjjo, 

(jii^vj; angeb 1 ); Hinterbacke, &£$ ; /endud. 
Plane Hob el, s^U; /"^re. 

Z7j^ Hoch, ^w/. 

Espoused ? H o c.h z e i t , ^le , _t. j ; msc. maraui, fem. 

mardt. Doch scheint dies irrig und viel- 

mehr ^C'^'E: ^OS^ sponsus, sponsa 

gemeint zu sein. 
Wood Holz, ^.ia=s.; atschai, OG: 

Zforc^ Ho nig, Jl*^; »2«5<?r, tf"5C: Wine made o/ 

honey, der Honigwein, tSdsch. 
Horn Horn, ^jJi; karin, &Ci m . 

Pretty H ii b s c h , ^^ ; grun, vgl. guter (Geruch ?) 

Hip Hiiften, ssamettu (?) vgl. Schenkel. 

Hen Huhn, U<>; dirho, SCO 1 : plur. STCU: 

Dog Hund, ^JL^; **#, lOA-fi: 

Hungry H u n g r i g , ^l*-^ ; ^/<?w». 

Hyena Hyane, «^a; karetsch. 

i) Wahrscheinlich Von -_*&; vgl. Loch. 

- 48 — 


Youth, a 


To calk 




Ja, aha. 

Jacke, ,5jJCi£; anterri. 
Ju ngling, oLfc; roodu nusch = young boy, 
junger S ohn ©AJ?"! "Zh?ti m . young daughter, 

junge Tochter, &u-*>; woletu nisch = 

G>Kt '. ?2ifl^ : Virgin, J u n g f r a u Ju ; bikr. 
bachelor Junggeselle, schebdb, pi. schab. 


Kaffe, "iyj§&\ kachwa. 

Kaftan, ^UasJi; kuftan. 

Kalb, Jkjsx£; agdl, plur, agul, 2i"hA.: veal, 

Kalbfleisch, J^sx* *i; egal. 
Kalfatern, JoaJU; kalfut. 

Kalk, 5 \yi ; nuret, 1Ia\ 

Kamm, JaA/i ; to comb kammen, JaiLo; 
re'eschi ssitter, vgl. M"Z,' und ChA', 

Kamel, Jk+a. ; geml, Id 3 A.! female camel, 
Kamelstute, &j>b ; met, f *^" ■ init Auf- 
gabe des .j wie in ^sJ^' basslich =*nbi', 

for riding Reitkamel, ( jjlsu»; hegin; 
the hump of a camel, Kamelbuckel, 
-Uu*,, sseldm, vgl. fif<?°: von dem Ludolf 
sagt: Respondet graeco ■nvgroq, gibbo- 
sus, Levit. 21, 20. Ein Wechsel von L und 
N findet sich auch in J\.y„ => scherwan. 
The saddle for baggage, Kamelpack- 
sattel, heiwot; the saddle for riding, 
Kamelreitsattel, arab. mahlufa ge- 
nannt; schonefett. Camel-driver Kamel- 
treiber, JU&.; gemm&l. 



To catch 

To chew 
To buy 







Denominat. von ^La-jf 

Kan one, «iJuo; medfah; cannon-ball Ka 
nonenkugel, s^, ids.; gielila; can 
nonier, Kanonier aaoJc, tubgie. 

Kapern, ^yoJi 

corsair', nahab, ^/-gi rapuit 

Karawane, xJLiU*, gafila; the caravaii 
arrives, die Karawane kommt, gafila 

Kase, j^; gibn, Iftif. 

Kasseroll, diss. 

Kauen, ««; milscher, <^KL,\ 

Kaufen, ^yc-Sil; sabi 1 ); to sell verkaufen 
cL; asbaa, Caus. 

Kerze, «+.&; schamaa, OT<J°o: grosse 
Kerze, schamadan, . t L v« ( .*. 2 ), 

Kind, kleines, Jjdo; wo gulha, ©AS - : und 
txX & " ? -4» illegitimate child uneheliches, 
^JOj 3 ); degala, pi. de'galil Xs&\'. amh. ; 
zweites Kind, .-ilS; ddgem; XVt<^ '. Besser 
als 2i3,A.r ware ^A.'i: zu vergleichen. 

Kinn, (jJto; ssachem /tih*? 3 ." vgl. Bart, 
jaw-bone Kinnbacke, nakak^ ygl. i5liKi: 

Kiste, jX.JuUs; muschlagsa. 

Kleid, i«j»i',' /^«a", A/Aii: dock scheint die 
Form arab. zu sein, (j«LJ. 

Kleidermotte, Xie; gongon, Q^i^i'. fullo, 
&-1 <fr-i,'. tinea. 



; neusch, "ili-h.'. fern, ne'isch. 

Klippe, j^L»o; schaab, ,_ 

!) Altarabisch L*-«/, speciell Wein kaufen. 

2 ) Eig. Leuchter zum Aufstecken einer Kerze. 

3 ) Bocthor: „Batard — en Syrie ^Juls, plur. ^J-j^Lj.'' 





To bind 



To scratch 


Klug, Jj?U; agil. 
Enabe, hessdn, 3i9l: 

Enie, ^fy, berik, -i\CA\ 

E n o c h e n , Jr* ; dssem, addim, ezum, US<P '• 

Enopfe, runde zur Weste, sing, gobet, 
plur. gobeb; gewohnliche Enopfe, xlks; 
kubbat, the ordinary buttons. 

Enupfen, JJLfi.; angid, 0*Jf: mit Nasal- 

Eahn, ojU; gelbet, gerar. 

E o t h , Jk^. ; tschenduch. 

Erank, schwach, oUjuo; hbmum, fem. hem- 
met, iixO^ip' 

Eratzen, viL>; hakak. fttt&W 

Eraut, yikjy&i*; schdir, UK>CT 

Ereis, s^-sto; dajira. 

Erieg, ^f*] harb, inHalhalte^^Wf't-: 
declaration of mar Eriegserklarung, 
ovil )LgJui|; worar; man ofwarKriegs- 
s c h i f f viLJLlT ^j* ; schuki. Commander 
of a MowstfrcrfEommandeurvonTausend, 
-iob t^jo ; bimbaschi; of a hundred, von 
Hundert ^L?-^; jus baschi; General 
in chief Obercommandeur, bascha oder 
&m//o ^«5« (scheint mir M \ JcSuT Jy> 
Commandeur der Janitscharen); Command- 
er of fifty, Eornmandeur von Fiinfzig, 
(c-iib *^U*j, fefe/t baschi. 

Eompagnie, x^o.! 1 ); karahun. 

i) Turk. Si>.l oda, eig. Stube, Zimmer, urspriinglich die in einer 
Caserne zusammenwohnenden Soldaten. 

— 51 — 

Head Kopf, jA; ras, Ctsi\\ neben dem arab. 

rds audi, wie es scheint, re'esch. Vgl. 

Cork-wood K o r k h o 1 z , jJLs ; kischr. 

Body Kb r per, *-**»•; nefis, i4tfrt! 

To taste Kosten, ^jli; laimu, ^E»0<3°: to lick mit 

der Zunge lecken, (3*J; lachas AAA." 

arab. audi (j**i. 

Crooked, curved Krumm, _yu>; awatsch, i-ysS- 

Cuirass Kiirass, cjO; <fer^ £"CO ■ 

Cake, unleavened Kuchen, ungesauert, diinnplattig, aus Wei- 
and thin zenmehl, mit viel Fett zum Friihstiick 

genossen, jdai, fettir. 
Short Kurz, jjyaj>; hatschir "i^C- 


To load Laden, die Flinte, J^e; mela <P\h'. Ram- 

roc? Lade stock, Jjuo; tekteki. 
The charge, load La dung, (JfjI/T, xX^'j schechnet (arab. 

^SJui anfiillen, beladen, befrachten). 
Z#02# Lamm, o«j-=»; «/^- 

Z«w?/» Lampe, Jujoi'; gandil. *3£&: 

Zo«y Lang, JuJs; ragim, regim. 

Lance, spear Lanze, &■*)'•, konat, YPf^ - .' « little lance 

kleineLanze, ( i-|ryo;^/«e/«,?ftA , i:mucro. 

J ^#zr of spears, Ein Paar Lanzen 
tschimara, bei den Beduan und Schohos. 
Vgl. ^<^L.\ Q<Plf£\ compages, vom Zu- 
sammenbinden so benannt. 


To run Laufen, <£<&■', ssae (arab. t5 *-w)- 


Louse {of the 


Light, easy 



To read 



Laus (naml. eine eigenthiimliche Art von 
Cainellaus), a!j; tschib. 

Leber, J^Z; kabdel, TQ-flJ? - : 

Leck r dobala, vgl. vlso adversitas; cleft, 
S p al t e , (jji, (jJU ; haschua (vgl. JiW^t : 
vitium in quavis re ?) to become leaky 
Leek werden, harjat dobala, vgl. "IL, (D '. 
insculpsit, mit Wechsel von W und J. 

Leder, JuU>; gild, in Halhal maess 0ttd\\ 

Lehrer, auiLs; fagi. 

Leib, oys»; ^0/. 

Leicht (facilis), J^L«; gafif i_axcj>, (levis) 
^«/#, <j?a.&: 

Leini, ( _ f «t 5 _&, lie.; habako, viell. verhort 
fiir tabako, vgl. jfllfl* : adhaesit, cP^-fl^ : 


Leinewand, ,j lies'; kottan. 
Leiter, *JLw; maarakit, vgl. DZ.1: ascendit, 
090(3: gradus phir. d°4Cl(^): 

Leopard, arab. marafil (?) ; hurnum, J^m leo '? 

Lesen, |j»; ^ara 

Liebhaber, i^j^ajs?; /tfto', Z.d*«I?: ^ fo- 
loved woman, Geliebte, 2bwusu>; /"«/«# 
Z.d-'E'l' : love-apple Liebesapfel, Lycoper- 
sicum esculentum, .^Liob; badengdn. 

Lieutenant, -viLo; melasim; Sergeant, 
Unterofficier, ^^ (tiirk. j^L>); 

Links, JU*L)| J^e.; schengeb B"3<P'. einer 

der Links ist, franz. gaucher, 



gawai; wiirde einemOD^'E: entsprechen. 



Lin sen, ^tXa; addas. 


CS i 

Lippe, ju^i (vulgar statt & 



Loch, ^J&; mangab. 


Lowe, Ju*|; hajet. 

i) ; kamfer, 




Cloak with short 




To bleat 

Meal, flower 


Maass, &«/fjuLs>; henddssa. 

Mager, >Jujuo; daif. 

Mann, Jka^ ; ennas, (&?fi:?) males of animals 
Mannchen von Thieren S&, dakr, 
tabaat, l-QO^: Der Plural ist nur tabaen, 
ob =■ -l"Q*i? : ? 

Mantel, mit kurzeri aufgeschnittnen 
Aermeln, (j«-Uj; bennisch; embroidered 
cloak, gestickter Mantel, abbat. 

Mark, Z^; inge, A?"hO: 

Mast, <5jL«e; daggal (altarab- cM>'t>). 

Matrose, ,-JM; nachuda (IJlL.15, pers. 


Maurer, \JS; banna. 
Maulthier, Jju; bag I, fl<t»A.' 

Meckern, von der Ziege, \5\ negai, 

vgi. i*©: ^ 

Medicin, t.t>; «?«««. 
Me hi, (3*i'o; haridsch, "ihK'. dagdt; pap, 
Mehlbrei von Durra, arab. lugm 

(*JLl von &+JU ?) genannt, gaad. Zu «?«^ 
vgl. d ^**: wo Ludolf sagt: Aethiops 
meus mihi exponebat mola minor quam 
^S/h^G • ad tenuiorem reddendam farinam. 

54 - 

Several persons 








Mehrere, SJUa.; giumlat. 
Menschen, u«b; addm, plur. 

Messer, ^wiX-*! sekin, in Halhal schekin; 
Schlachtmess er, abutchers knife ■ t p^ M ; 

esluch. Messerschmidt, ^uS'K**; sekakin. 
Milch, v_*^JLa. ; halib &i.bA\\ saure Milch 

sour milk, v_*jIn t ^i; he gin, 0$3: lac 

tridui, amharisch AJMK 
Mittagbrot, |Jlc; messach, <pfiih.'. Das 

Essen nach Mitternacht im Ramadan, 

the supper after midnight in the Ramadan 

>ysu«, ssahur. 
Monat, j-g^i; ware, (DQ'i'. 
Morgen, &+>o\ aguah, vgl. iW. und 

i°KJ I matutinum tempus, Hauasa niggdho. 

Miiller, ^UsJs; tahdn, vgl. die Wurzel in 
Qsivi'. Gerstenmehl; mill-stone Miihlstein, 
uy^lis; tahdn; Stein zuni Zer- 
quetschen der Durra, stone for 

crushing the durrah, malchan, vgl.^lsaiw. 
Mund, ^j af h<\ 
Musselin, yiLi; schdsch. 

Muse he In, oJui; ssadif the same means 
mother of pearl, so auch Perlmutter. 

Muskatnuss, ^As sys»; Ml. 

Mutter, pf; ummi, "h<p: meine Mutter, 
my mother, ummie; deine, thy mother, um- 
muka; seine, his mother, ummu. Nach 
der Vocalisation arabisch, allein das Suffix 
in ummie Aethiopisch, 2i<pp: 



Navel N a b e 1 , » y» .;. ' s.wm 

iV^ Nacht, jULJ; M, A.AJ5N 

Rear-guard Nachtrab, i_aJli*. x.«La. jXa*u£; rctfsaw, 

iV<!W& Nacken x (j^t; erdod, segad, vgl. 'fli'lJ? - : 

Naked Nackt, .jLsj-fc; erjan. 

Needle Nad el, Sol; ibrat. 

Nail N a g e 1 (unguis), wiia, soffur JS^ZQ '. (clavus), 

vU^wo; musmar. 
To sow Nahen, kJoLyi.; chajate. 

Food Nahrung, (ji.^; belleh, -flAU^: -£14.0: 

Nahrungsvorrathe, provisions st>l«; ; 

iVaz«« Nam en, *«!; *&?/»«, fi<?°: plur. asmaju 

v)!/#«? Narr, magnun. Narrheit, madness ^jU^-; 

Nose Nase, ^_«j!; «w/^ &?-=£: Nasenspitze, 

Me &j» tf/7&? »<w<?, uuifl u«tj ; ramschettu 

£%w<? N el ken, Gewiirz, JkAj^; kanufr, aus dem 

arab. corrumpiert. 
New Neu, Jo^*-! A«<M? xh£fi: 

Net Netz, k£o&; schachuat, ob Transposition 

des arabischen? 

iVfc<? Niedlich, u*o£>; ^rwrc. 

i?<wi« Nieren, ^l?; kulol, YfrA.*: pi. ttAJP*: 

Hippopotamus Nilpferd,: ^suJI^y ; aenssid. 


Bull, Ox- 





c h s e , .A\ barai, ■Q0A..E : Ein Ochsenfell, 
welches auf das Angereb gelegt wird, heisst 
gindi, skin of an ox, which is covered 
over an Angareb. 

Oel, v»o\; sselid (arab. iajuLL u. fLA/P:). 

Of en, ^ji; furn. 

Ohr, ,j6t; ezin, KHZ'. Ear-ring Ohrring, 
2ULJLa» ; kulkulet. 



Horsemen PI. 




Panto ff el, jijjlj; babusch. 

Papagei, s>t>, ^Laaj; durra. 
Papier, ^j . . ; woraqa. 

Passagiere, ol^; rukkab. 

P a t r o n e , aJCcLi ; faschaka. 

Pech, ^jlJaJi; ssendrus, ^^hZl'. (^.^Ja** 

und fl?SCft! Sandarach). 
Peitsche, ateJw; hanadsch. 

Perle, pp; /«/; A(D-&: AA.: ifo/ifor 0/ 
/^«r/ Perlmutter, oJua, ssadaf wie 

Pfeffer, jiii; berbereh. flCflZ,: 

Pfeife, tiirkiscke, tschibuk, ,x.»Aja>; kurze 

abyssinische aus braunem Thon, 

« s/«o? t abyssinian pipe of brown clay, buri. 

Pferd, ^Laa.; faras, U,ix\ maneFferde- 

mahne, halhala. 

— 57 







Pfriemen, v^iaui; machras. 
Pilot, v«Jyo J>Ju); ruban, ^\. 
Pistole, o>yi, xjsvjuJs; ferd, tabanga. 
Portulak, $ls>y, rigli, malachie (jUi.Jlo). 
Provision, jujLo^S; masruf, o.y-ox. 
Pulver, *>^b; £«rw/y Pulverwagen, xju^ 
4>^b; arabije. 




To the right 









Rabe, i_>Li; kakai, •£&: (WD.: bedeutet 

Coccus, Dillm. nicbt Rabe Ludolf.) 
Rahm, Saline, is* Jut ; teffet. 
Rechnen, ,_****.; hessab, Aflfl: 
Rechts, ^k**5\ jJLc; maan, verkiirzt aus 

Reg en, Jxo; senam, "Hf*? 3 " und sendb. 
Regiment, xj«.| (tiirk.); urdi (tiirk. ^lij.l). 
Reich, tagier, von y=»b, merchant. 
Reis, \«; rw*. ZiiH" 
Reise, Jo*: ssaffer ; der Reisende, the 

traveller jjLLo; mussafir. 

Reptilien, _>jot>; «rw<? AC'S-' so audi 
Delphin und Hayfisch. 

Rettig, Jlsxj; figl. 

Rinder, Jb; waad; herd of, Rinder- 
herden, aha A4i" ege; & to, Briillen, 
vom Rindvieh; «L=.; tnakelid, negaii^G)'. 
Rindsleder, jju jJLs. •^'^wflMyRindfleisch, 
Jb jv4-.; segaha, was irrig scheint; auf 
die Frage antwortete Abubekr ( W3V: 
ihr Fleisch. The tongue of an ox Rinds- 
zunge, .A jjLJ; lessan waad. &f&'. 



To call 

— 58 - 
Fleisch der jungen Kuh, flesh of a young 
cow, &Lp\ fLl makdn, vgl. ***&'. 
sterilis, was wax ifaxrjv vom Rinde ge- 
braucht sein kann. 
Ring, *jU*; chatim; ohne Stein, ring 

without a gem ^jJs\ makrait 
Roh, ungekocht, ^; drat, ^Zn.e: 
Roth, j^~>); gajech, fern, gajach, $.Erh: 
Riicken, wgis; hesad, vgl. fliW: 
Ruder, yj\53»\miqddf;<f i *X'<\xi.0Vtt< m . 

rudern, to row, oJo'; sahab. Rowing 

bench Ruderbank, l*«&. = ital. ciurma; 

franz. chiourme; garia. 
Rufen, ^ob; lagam, koka. 

Matter, thing 





She suckled 


Sacbe, Jus-la.', huge, selhat. 

Sack, Ballen, <J<Xa; sembil, arab. J^uJv, 

eigentl. great basket grosser Korb. 
Sab el, straight, grader, oU*«; sef frjl^'. 

curved, krummer, jOji'Li; djerdad, PI. 

goradit (zu ®L$\ *>Z.e: amh. <P°ZJh\). 
Sage, ^LiJuo; maschar, von ©frZ,: sagen = 

Sagefisch, chassif. 
Sand, v_j Jaxi (?) ; matrab. 

Sandalen, ^Ijoo; madass. 

Saugen, o**5%; raddaiat. 

Salz, &X*\ tschaiwa, &,(D". 

- 39 - 
Sammt, xJuJaS; kaffai?) vgl. die Wurzel 

h\aj> : 

Satiated Satt, ,jLju&:; *^k*, /FMi: A^A : satt sein. 

Saddle Sattel, ^v^; &&', vgl. .S und "D, .jCo 

sella camelina. Girth Sattelgurt, Jy&.; 
hombalet, vrgl. A-flA^"." Seil, und /h5QA.." 
Kamelsattel, « camel's saddle. 

Acid Sauer, ydjoLs.; hbmus vgl. xh<P"H: vene- 

rium. Leaven, Sauerteig, *a+» ; chamir, 
in Halhal w^<?^, vgl. tf'A.A! sale condire. 

6'A^/? Schaaf, xsx*j; begaei, IT20 : ram Wii- 

der, fo^i?; M«'r /^ to7 Fettschwanz, 
XjJI; ssebolet. Ein ganzes Schaaf am 
Spiesse gebraten, « whole roasted 
sheep, schauarme. 

Scull S chad el, » t <* , s. ; hamhammed raasga. 

Shaft of amusket Schaft des Gewehres, ,j-<\i_«Jl ^ia^.; 

Scarf Scharpe, *!j^-; hezdm. 

Sharp S c h a r f , «JbL' ; beluch, ■fl./t'i : rough, r a u h 

anzufassen, u*^!; garagirtu. 

Scissors S c h e e r e , Jom ; mag ass. 

To divorce Scheiden, die Ehe, (^JLb; talega. 

Hip Schenkel, j^xi; baggerot. Es scheint 

nach dem arab. Hiifte. 
Squinting Schielend, Jy&.|; eschrak. 

To shoot Schiessen, ,-=^1; ircha; ^->yo\ udrub 

Ship SchifiV European europaisches, v_*Sl/>, 

merkab ; boat K a h n , l_>> U" ; gelbet, gerar ; 

Man of war Kriegsschiff, vd-JLu >_>Syo ; 

i) ^AJt'. Isenb. p. 145; es hat mit &>*&£<,' nichts zu thun. 

60 — 

Tortoise, Turtle 


To sleep 

To beat 

Lock of a gun 

schuki; Indian ship indisches Schiff, 
bagalet, gandscha; Persian ship per- 
s i s c h e s Schiff, ebri; ships from Dahlak, 
Schiffe von der Insel D ahlak, merajischa. 
Schiffsvordertheil, «_**vJf )d^>; sidder ; 
Sailor-boy Schiffsjunge, y^-yo, ital. 
mozzo, franz. mousse; sgair => Jjuo; 

Windlass of the ship Schiffswinde, ^^Lo', 
goraa; The open room of the Arabic ships, 
der unbedeckte Eaum des arabischen 

Schiffes, surra = si* (?) ; Room for the 

cargo, Raum fiir die Ladung, schittri. 
S child, u-yi"; geleb, vgl. 2AH1K velamento 

operuit, texit. 
Schildkrbte, Li^w ; gachfot, plur. gachfi. 

Viell. von Hh^C^t'. canistrum nach der 

Form benannt. 
Schlachter, JZ ^ ; gezz&r; Butchery 

Schlachterei, Llsu; gensaiin. 

S c h 1 a f e , cjco ; dschabab. 

Schlafen, -b; skab, A^lfll I am sleepy, 

ich bin schlafrig, ^LliS bf; gasin 

heleko =• IIMK 
Schlagen, ^>ya ; haram, oga, Caus. (D<£U '. 
S c h 1 a n g e , SU^. ; argab. 
Schlecht, kufu; mit tu: kefotu; schlech- 

tes Essen, bad dinner, mesach kefotu ; 

batal, flfllA.: von dem das i abfallt wie 

in A«1A.: Ziegen. 
Schloss am Gewehr, ,_Jljw>; scnat, juu^o, 

Kunst, artificial work. 

- 61 - 




To snarl 

{Pocket) hand- 

To cry 



Schlundrohre, ^pA.\ jUoi; 

vgl.T-Ca: guttur; Schlund, <jl^; helgom, 
arab. ,.yLU>, sieh e fhA$: wo Ludolf hat: 
Graecus hahet ^tayovia maxillas, at Gre- 
gorys Ai&$: mihi exponebat Amhar. 
&"HTA: ingluvies, Kropf, Kehle. 

Schmerzen, hammomole, vgl. ftv&kp: Da- 
her Augenschmerzen, pain in the 
eyes, oentu hammomole; pain in the 
belly, L eib s chm er z en , gofut ham. Siehe 
Leib oya. ; headache, Kopfschmerzen, 
ras ssachem ham. vgl. i?ih<p: Kinn. 

Schmid, <>ltV&.; haddad. 
Schminkbohne, LuJ; hada'gora. 
Schnarchen, ■-&*&; nachar, "iihZ,'. y&j. 
Schneider, h\jJs- ; hajat. 
Schnupftuch, JojOxi; mandil, (^iRJk'. 

Schnurrbart, u^LX ; schaudrib. 
Schonheit, ^«a; husn, lache, \ihjl I 

sen, W?." 
Schraube, ^JJ; lolab. 
Schreien, --Uo; ssach ; crying, a cry 

S c h r e i , _Luo ; tschisch. 
S c h u h , oj-S"*-* ; merkub. Shoemaker, 

Schuhmacher, ^fUcj^a, maillem el- 

medas, IJU \\XJ\ Ajuo (wortl. der Sandalen- 

meister, master of sandals'). 
Schulden, ^o; dejan. 
Schule, ^JSL*; miskid <$*fiXfr'- <Xsu*jo. 
Schulter, ^JlxS'; maktuf, vgl. (pVfK'. 
Schuppe, yii; kischr, $IHC squama. 

62 - 

Black, blue 

To be silent 

To swim 




To see 

Sit down 

To sing 

To sink, to be 


Schwanger, Ju>L^; amsat Qlivi-'r ? ! 
Schwanz, ,_*i<i; dsanab, Hi-fi: 
Schwarz, blau, <>yj; tzalim, fern. tzaMm, 

AA.<?°:; vgl. arab. jUJo, pJo!, ~£J&- 

Schweigen, oL; esam, sagbel. 

Schwein, jOi.; harawi, ihACW: 

Schweiss, jjfjjt; «r«^. 

Schwer (difficilis), ujw; besuchti, -nH-«i: 
an Gewicht, ^«2>y Juaj; komud, flfbE": 
rasin, arab. jj->)v Schwierig, s<2$«, ^jjue . 

Schwimm,en, *Le; «w»z. 
Scorpion, o v&e ; <a#r«£, U$Zrfi: 
Seemann, (jvsi; bachri. 

Sebne, *_^oi; *«'rr, WC©*: 

S e g e 1 , «JLs ; s£$r#, arab. cl«-co u. ath. WZnO : 

Sail-yard, Segelstange, ^jL\ tor man. 

To hoist the sail die Segel aufziehn, 


cJUiJt; ischmur, i^<^L.\ affixit als cau- 
sat. ?); To furl the sail Segel nieder- 

lassen, c JliiJt ^fe. ; bassed; Segel binden, 

c JULfl IJ; #ss<?r schra, h\33L,\ 
Sehen, he sees, er sieht, oLi; &>vA. QiP! 

Seide, j^; harir; a silken cloth, seid- 

nes Kleid, o«&. i-»>i'; ^z## harir. SxLQ.'. 
S e t z d i c h , Jmj>| ; gassi, vgl. <J?iTO ! curvavit. 
Shawl, JL*o ; schal. 

Singe n, i^.; halai, "JAP: 

Sink en, von einem Schiffe, einem Ertrinken- 

den u. dgl, ^jyt; garik. 
So hie, Jk*j; maddas, ,jjjuc. 

- 63 - 

Pay Sold, xjJC«1&.; jamkie, hidm (jLo Jls. ?), 

meschacherri, arab. s«jeLko, eig. Monats- 
sold; soldier, Soldat, JL^a ; asker. 
Summer Sommer, oLuaJI; hagai, A3JJI 

Sun Sonne, yu+A}\; tzachai O'hJE: vgl. arab. 

Slit Spalte, (Js-&; churg, arab. ij*=»-. 

To bend the bow Spannen, den Bogen, Jui, jl«; neschad. 

Looking-glass Spiegel, auCo; miraje. 

Spider Spinne, lo^oCie; ssarut, fiZo't". 

To speak Sprechen, JU; tahagi, { S\zk- 

Fat Stark, fett, u jjl*«,; hous, valid kraftig, 

~ degub. 
Dust Staub, i_>Lj'; hossa, ~Qfi\ 

Stone Stein, s\L^: (plur^; uban, 2i-fl?: pi. 2ifl3." 

Stearage, Rud- Steuerruder, Xi5, ,jlJo.i>; sukan (alt- 

«fer arab. ^1X1). 

Embroidery Stick erei, svtJb; gaetan. 

Voice S t i m m e , 0.-0 ; ssaut; laute Stimme, ^^aj 

Jte ; ssautu besuchtu, loud voice, ■flH-'i I 
to speak with a low voice mit leiser 
Stimme sprechen, ab hbthot tah&gi. 
Forehead Stirn, ^yu^; g amber. 

Stick Stock, zjLcls.; murra. 

'**■ .. 

Stutterer, Stut- Stotternd, jXJ!; laiad, ath. Advr: 


Ostrich Strauss, *L*j; ssagen, filC: 

Rope, cord, cable S trick, J^a>; habl, ih-flA: 

Stocking Strumpf, <->Uf>-; sc hi~ab. 

Piece Stuck, x*ks; ssebar, ath. fiQC 

64 - 



To substraci 


Fen, marsh 

Stumm, *Jot; legum, vgl A"h<P\ fraenavit, 

als parte, pass. 
Stute, (j«vi; badra. 
Subtrahieren, 1JL,; gaib, v_*xe. 
Suss, JL*-; toum, ^{hif 3 '. very sweet, aus- 

gezeichnet siiss, jojJ; taum bilmarra, 

Sumpf, kbbe 1 ). 





To dance 







Tabak, ^Li»4>; afc^m/Kautabak, teisch; 
der feuchte Tabak fiir das Nar- 
gil e h , tombak ; er zerfallt in zwei Sorten, 
(one sort) kesrun und (the other one) 
hbmmi. Snuff, Schnupftabak, tombak ; 
indischer Tabak, surretti, haugot. 

Tag, +y*\ amhel, ob plur. = <J° < P<jA '. 

Talg, |^sx.*i; schibech ath. W-flih: 

Tamarinde, ^dJ&> j*2; homar, SL, ist 

ohne Zweifel Arabisch, wie die Vocali- 
sation zeigt. 

Tanzen, ^aJy, seffen, ath. UAi' 

Tasche, u »j3'; kis. 

T a u b e n (columbae), ..U^. ; ham am. 

Taub, Lai; isamam, ££&*<?>; 
Thee, ^Li. ; tschai. 

Theuer, ^U; sabun, awola butu; cheap 
billig, wohlfeil, ist awola galiltu. 

i) iuJ V-ulgararabisch Brei, Mehlbrei, viell. vom tiirk. juSJ, b!S|. 

_ 65 — 




To give to drink 

To drive 





T h i e r , ^ t ,jt~. ; heiwdn. 

Todt, mut, <$><S&\ 

Trainknecht, Pferdeknecht, (j*oL«; ssajds. 

Tranken, (Juu - , Give me to drink, gieb 

mir zu trinken, stenni, Afl^PJ.: Imprt. 

Drink, trinke Jjw&l; ssitte, fi"t: 
Treiben, ,j-L2; fete', TA(D: 
Trocken, "hart, u^L; $«s, JEIMi: iiber die 

Aussprache des P als I siehe Dillinann, 

Gram. p. 30. 
Tromblon, kaajLs"; machholled. 
Trommel, trompetta, but it means perhaps 

Trompeter, semdra, SJey 
Truppen, Jd^s. ; asker ; To collect troops , 

Truppen sammeln, JL*^ ,*+=*? giamia 

Tuch, ~j=?\ giuch; ein grosses Tuch, 

das die einzige Bekleidung des 

a > 

niedern Volkes bildet, jiiui (Lane 
Hulalije), for; duster, Tuch zum Ab- 
wischen, scheldud. 
Turban, jooltJt ; imama ; tarbusch, ji^j Jb ; 
the white cap under the tarbush, die 
weisse Baumwollenkappe unter 
dem Tarbusch, jUsUo; takie; cap of 
coloured silk, steifeKappe aus bun- 
tern Seidenband, SUA*; kofije; seid- 
nesKopftuch meist roth und gelb, 
0U-0 ; ssemaddl, yellow or red cloth for 
covering the head. 

— m 

To digest 



Degrees of Mndr 









Verdauen, *m»\ asser, vgl. URZ,'. succum 

Verdeck, »-g\t»>... ; dakket, arab. ZS&- 
Verlobt, uJiiu, xjJt£v.x>; te«Y, ihS/t - : 
Verschieden, i_aJU^ui; muchtalif. 

ed Verwandtschaftsgrade. 

Vater, ol; abu, K-fl'. my father me in 
V a t e r , iba, AfbP .' thy father, d e i n 
Vater, abuka, AfbTti: his father sein 
Vater, abuhu MblK plur. abotatsche. 

Mufter &ffz;ra, 2k? 3 : plur. ummatatsche. 

Sohn, jj . ; W0<fe, (DAS - : plur. uladu, i>iL| 
oder (DvA-E - : daughter, To enter, oJo; 
woletu, (DA*: plur. amaledu, ZiTA.K": 

B r u d e r , • \ ; ^w.te V5(D" : sister Schwester, 

o-a-l; hetsche ~h.^t\ plur. fo$/ AS*: 
brothers Briider, hauje A 1 ?®*: 

Grossvater, i\&.; abe-abu; A£L: Aft: 
grand-mother, Grossmutter, s <X_=* ; 

Enkel, ^j^fl ^t ; in Massaua bismae, plur. 
bismatatsche, im Tigre wod-wodjie = (DAX : 


Enkelin, ^^1 ojj, ooJt oub; /« Mas- 
saua bismae; im Tigre wolet-woletje, 

(DA-i-: (da*: 

Onkel, vaterl., brother of the father, Is.; 
iba plur. abotatsche; aunt Tante, vaterl., 

sister of the father, JUx; ammetsche plur. 






— C7 - 

Onkel, miitterl,, brother of the mother, JU>; 

haliS plur. halotatsche ; aunt Tante, 

mutter!., sister of the mother; haletsche 

plur. hallotatsche. 
Neffe, ^11 jjjf; »^ /?i^; o^bJt ^j!, 

woa? hetsche ; plur. ^0&ra? te unci hetsche, 

Nichte, -ill oOj; wolethue; o^*^l oOj, 

?zWi?/ hetsche. 
Vetter, ^jJ| ^1; wod abue von iba Onkel; 

Cousine, I*J| o^j; wolet abue. 
Sehwiegervater, *_c <=• .Jl .jI; ^«?«m- 

^« plur. hamutata, father of the husband 
Vater des Mannes; *~>, SLJt .j|; 
hamuhuta, father of the wife Vater 
der Frau, At? : 

Mother-in-law Schwiegermutter, sUa.5 harnatu plur. 
hamalalu, mother of the wife Mutter 
der Frau; <Jes*Jf J, hamota plur. tew- 
/«/«, mother of the husband Mutter des 
Mannes, A^^t"." 

Brother-in-law Schwager, brother of the husband y~*\ 
_.-J|; talakemdplur. talakmutata ; brother 

of the husivife 'i\>^\ ^&.|, samahu plur. 
Sister-in-law Schwagerin, sister of the husband o^i-t 
,-JI; naalia plur. naltotata; sister of the 

huswife i\yj\ o^-l, samaitu, plur. samaitu. 

Schwagerin, wife of the brother &s>.v 

•j»!SM", **'# W ^ M pl ur - «ww hauje, A?£i^: 


— 68 

Husband of 

Beast, cattle 
Much, many 
A quarter 



the S c h w a g e r , o^-SM &=>s ; samae plur. sama- 
latsche, dann be't'ss hedsche, das daneben 
auch im Gebrauch ist => -fltxiX '. u. "htt '. 

V i e h , x*a^> 5 bahima. 

Viel, ^aa5^ besuch, -AH- 1 ?: 

Viertel, «j!; rub', rube'i. 

Vogel, jjJo; aifot plur. ajefi, von V3i*£'. 
mit Wechsel von (D und V. in Halhal, 
ssararit \\JZb&\ Eggs, Vogeleier, bete 
fot, bete ssararit, aus den vorigen mit 

Voll, Jjw; »^/^ <PArh'. 

Vormund, Aufseher, JuyS^ ; w«£«7 plur. 


Watch, Guard Wache, an der Kiiste, jJsb; nadu/\ wie 

fT«*- Wachs «*-»£; scham, UJ^O: 

Arms, weapons Waff en, _iL«; s<?/«. 
Waise, *ji£s; atim. 
Wage, ^jly-yo; mizin. 
Weg, (JjJs; ^«*«« 1-flA: «£/#; « broad 

road breiter Weg, gabai abaitu, vgl. 

O..E : a direct road g r a d e r Weg, gabai 

ssenSta, a/celled hid, vgl. TUfJB: bonus; 

a bad road holpriger Weg, y#£«7 


Shoulder-belt Wehrgehenk, Xiklo; M«/t. 



Woman, wife 







To neigh 
To smell 




W e i b , besa, becsa, -fl&iVl - : Females of ani- 
mals Weibchen von Thieren, onta = 

Weintraube, ^Jls.; ennab. 

Weise, JLa plur. LgJii. ; alimipluY. fugaha; 
wisdom, science, Weisheit, JU; Urn. 

Weiss, (jajul; saade fern, sdda &i)Jl\ un 
old ma?i with white hair weisshaariger 
Mann, v_*jL&; scheba plur. schajab, 

Weizen, ^*S', schenrai, flCf JB \ 

Wenig, Joyb; heud, W£\ 

Werkzeug, JjJI; edda, arab. s'Jlc. 
Wetter, nefas, i^.ii\ 
Widder, jUf; bege 1110: 
Wiege, (Xgjo; holcli, plur. hauelil. 

W i e h e r n , J-g-o ; hanhana, vgl. arab. * s& 1 ~- 

Wittern, Li; ^^« /«, &i(D\ + 2iAI? 

W i 1 1 w e , xLo * I ; mabell, <Pft A^t- ." « widower 
W i 1 1 w e r , Jwu I ; 7ft«&7. Das letzter e b e- 
zeichnet auch den zweiten Mann einer 
Frail. The latter means also a second 
husband of a woman. 

Wolf, <_*j<j>; haschin. 

Wolle, Wollenzeug, o«^; dscheggar, 
vgl. Haar A>C 

Wort, x+JLT; kelma. 

Wunde, --ys-! regus, vgl. Z,"ZH: confodit. 

W.urm, So. t>; haschaka, 6vts?&\ Korn- 

wurm, cornworm. 
W u r z e 1 , ^jys. ; gurd, Umstellung von . o^ ? 





To demonstrate, 

to show 

To cut 
To tear 



Percussion cap 




Linen Thread 


Zahl, OlXx; in Massaua hessab, Aft-fl! 

in Adaua godsur, vgl. amh. l P°H±Z,' 

Zahne, J^ (sing.); ajn&b, i_>Lu!,von ljIj; 

Backzahne, ^yh (sing.); hdi. 
Zange, Lous'; kelbe vgl. ^jj^S forceps. 
Zeigen, ^t. ; ariu, AC&P- 

Zeit, oi. ; sebdn, H<3°1 1 doch unmittelbar 

wohl von ijUv, wie syr. ,_a-|. 
Zerlegen, tranchieren, Ja2 ; fotoy, fl"t**Q T 

Zerreissen, ia^owi.; schedetto, XDHMh'. 

Z i e g e , 8-jjL* ; /«/#, fH A/t" ! plur. atal, A"1A. : 

he-goat Ziegenbock, ,j*4i', debela, 


Zimmermann, vLsiu," negiar. 

Zimmt, x-ilj'; karfa, bOGf. $Zn4i: 

Zucker, JC«; ssukhar, r> I QC' Sweet-meats 

Zuckersachen, tJLa.; halaua. 
Zundhutcben, kapsul. 
Zunge, ^LJ; lessan, Aft?: 

Zwieback, isl„, ♦_*»_&■?, biscuit de mer; 

Zwiebel, <Jl*ij; basset, f\&&'. 

Zwirn, iali.; /&<///, ZjtA.1 JwOs. 

71 — 

a g 














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to 53 


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The numbers indicate the pages. The corresponding English and Tigre words 
are printed in Italics. The Verts, Numerals, Adverbs and Prepositions, which have 
been enumerated p. 17 — 19, 30, are not repeated in the following alphabetical list. 

To accept 34. 
Ache 61. 
Acid 59. 
To add 33. 
Address 33. 
Addice 39. 
Affianced 66. 
Age 33. 
Albanian 35. 
All 33. 
Althea 40. 
Anchor 34. 
To cast anchor 34. 
Animal 65. 
Ankle 43. 
Antilope 34. 
To arise 35. 
Arm 35. 
One-armed 40. 
Arm-pit 33. 
Arms 68. 
To arrive 34. 
Ass 25. she ass 

Atlas 35. 
Aunt 67. 
Autumn 47. 
To awake 35. 
Awl 57. 

Babe 49. 
Bachelor 48. 
The back 58. 
Bad, bad dinner* 

Balance 68. 
Ballast 36. 
Barber 36. 
Barefort 36. 
Bark 36. 
Barley 44. 
Basket, a great 58. 
Basket 27. 
Bastard 49. 
Bath 36. 
Bean 38. 
Kidney bean 27. 
Kidney-bean 61. 
Beanty 61. 

To bear 43. 
Beard 36. 
Beast 68. 
To beat 60. 
Bedstead 34. 
Beer 37. 
Beginning 34. 
Belly 25. 
To bend the bow 

Benefactor 26. 
Bird 68. 
Birds 42. 
Biscuit 70. 
Bit 37. 
Bitter 37. 
Black 21, 62. 
Bladder 46. 
To bleat 53. 
Blind 37. 
Blood 37. 
Blue 62. 
Boat 50, 59. 
Body 51 f 52. 
Bone 50. 

Bow 37. 
Bowels 39. 
Box 39. 
Boy 50. 
Bracelet 35. 
Brain 43. 
Brandy 38. 
Bread 38. 

Breakfast 43. 
Breast 38. 
Breath 35. 
Bride 38. 
Bridegroom 22, 

Bridle 25. 
Bring hither 38. 
Broth 42. 
Brother 66. 
Brother in law 67, 

Eye-brow 35. 
Bull 56. 
To bury 37. 


- 74 - 

Burial place 26. 
Butcher, butchery 

Butter 38. 
Button 50. 
To buy 49. 

Cable 63. 
Caftan 48. 
Cake 51. 
Calf mscl. 25. 
Calf 48. 
To calk 48. 
To call 58. 
Cambric 36. 
Camel 24, 48. 
Camel-driver 48. 
Cannon 49. 
Cannon-ball 49. 
Cap 65. 
Caravan 49. 
Carbine 65. 
Carpenter 70. 
Cartridge 56. 
Cat 27. 
To catch 49. 
Cattle 68. 
Black-cattle, 25, 

Cinnamon 70. 
Circumcision 37. 
Chalk 48. 
Cheap 37, 64. 
Cheek 26, 27, 36. 
Cheese 49. 
Chest 49. 
To chew 49. 
dullness 42. 
Chin 27, 49. 

Circle 50. 
Clever 50. 
Cliff 49. 
Cloak 53. 
Cloth 24, 65. 
Clothes 49. 
Cloud 27. 
Clove 55. 
Coffee 48. 
Collar 46. 
Color 41. 
Comb 48. 
To comb 48. 
Come Impr. 13. 
Commander of a 

thousand 50. 
Commander of a 

hundred 50. 
Commander of fifty 

Company 50. 
Compass 39. 
Consort 44. 
Cooked 44. 
Cord 26, 63. 
Cork-wood 51. 
Corsair 39. 
Cotton 36. 
Cotton-stuff 36. 
Country 43. 
Cousin 67. 
Cow, that has no 

milk 27. 
Flesh of a young 

cow 58. 
Cradle 69. 
Cream 57. 
Crooked curved 


To cry, a cry 61. 
Crude 58. 
Cuirass 51. 
To cut 70. 

Dagger 39. 
To dance 64. 
Darkness 39. 
Dates, dry 39. 
Daughter 26, 66. 
Day 64. 
Dead 65. 
Dead body, corpse 

Deaf 64. 
Dear 64. 
Debts 61. 
Deck 66. 
To depart 33. 
To descend 33. 
Different 66. 
Difficult 62. 
To digest 66. 
Dinner 54. 
Disgusting 40. 
To divorce 59. 
Doctor 35. 
Dog 47. 
To give to drink 

To drive 65. 
To be drowned 62. 
Drum 65. 
Dry 65. 
Dumb 64. 
Dung 24. 
Durra 40. 
Stone for crushing 

the durrah 54. 

Dust 63. 
Duster 6.5. 

Ear 56. 
Ear-ring 56. 
Eear of corn 33. 
Easy 21, 52. 
To eat 41. 
Eggs 40, 68. 
Elbow 40. 
Elephant 40. 
EU 40. 

Embroidery 63. 
Enemy 42. 
To envelop 40. 
Epistle 38. 
Espoused 47. 
Eunuch 41. 
Eye 21, 35. 
One-eyed 40. 
Eye-lid 35. 

To fall 41. 
Family 41. 
Fat 63. 
Fatigue 41. 
Father 66. 
Father in law 67. 
Females 69. 
Fen, marsh 64. 
Fever 42. 
Field 43. 
Fig 41. 
File 41. 
Finger 42. 
Fish 42. 
Fish-hook 34. 
Fist 41. 
Flag 42. 

- 75 - 

Plea 42. 
Fleet 42. 
Flower, meal 53. 
Flute 26. 
Fly 42. 
Foal 25. 
Fog 23. 
Follower 37. 
Food 55. 
Forehead 63. 
Foreigner 23. 
Fox 27, 43. 
Full 68. 
To furl the sail 62. 

Gain 44. 
Gall 43. 
General 44. 
General in Chief 

To give 43. 
Glass-bottle 44. 
Glue 52. 
To go 10, 43. 
Goat 26 bis., 70. 
Gold 45. 
Goldsmith 45. 
Good 45. 
Grand daughter 

Grand father 66. 
Grand mother 66. 
Grand son 66. 
Grapes 69. 
Gray 45. 
Greasy 42. 
Great 45. 
Green 21, 45. 
Groom 6.5. 

Guard 68. 
Advanced guard 

Bear-guard 55. 
Guide 43. 
Gum 45. 
Gun-powder 57. 
Gun-smith 38. 
Gut 39. 

Hair 45. 

Half 45. 
One half 49. 
Halm, stalk 45. 
Hammer 46. 
Hand 24. 
Back of the hand 

Handkerchief 61. 
Happy 45. 
Hare 46. 
To hasten 36. 
Hatchet 36. 
Hazard 46. 
Head 25, 51. 
Headache 61. 
Hearing 43. 
Heart 47. 
Heavy 62. 
Heel 42. 
Heir 40. 
Hen 26, 47. 
Herb 50. 
High 47. 
Highroad" 46. 

Hip 47, 59. 
Hippopotamus 55. 

To hoist the sail 

Hole 53. 
Honey 47. 
Horn 25, 47. 
Horse 25, 56. 
Horsebit 43. 
Horsemen 56. 
House 24. 
Hump of a camel 

Hunchbacked 38. 
Hungry 47. 
Husband 25. 
Hyena 47. 

Jacket 48. 
Jacket with slee- 
ves 35. 
Jaw-bone 49. 
Jewel 40. 
Ink 39. 
Ink-horn 39. 
Inn 43. 
Inspector 68. 
Instrument 69. 
Invitation 40. 
Joint 44. 
Journey 57. 
Ivory 40. 

Kettle 25. 
Knee 24, 50. 
To knit, bind 50. 
Knife 54. 
To know 20. 

Ladder 52. 
Lamb 51. 

Lame 47. 

Lamp 51. 

Lance 51. 

Lead 37. 

Leaf 37. 

Leak 52. 

To become leaky 

Leather 52. 

Left 46, 52. 

Leg 37. 

Lemon 39. 

Lentils 53. 

Leopard 52. 

Letter 38. 

To lick 51. 

Lieutenant 52. 

Light 52. 

Linen-cloth 52. 

Linen thread 70. 

Lion 53. 

Lip 26, 53. 

Little 49, 69. 

Liver 52. 

Lizard 40. 

To load 51. 

To load upon 35. 

Lock of a gun 60. 

Long 51. 

Looking-glass 63. 

Loud 63. 

Louse 33, of ca- 
mels 52. 

Love-apple 52. 

Lover 52. 

To low (bleat) 57. 

Had, Madness 55. 

Male 53. 


- 76 - 

Man 53. 

Mane 56. 
Many 68. 
Mare 64. 
Mariner 62. 
Marrow 53. 
To marry 46. 
Mason 53. 
Mast 53. 
Master 26. 
Matter 58. 
Meager 53. 
Meal 53. 
Measure 53. 
Meat 41, 42. 
Bad meat 41. 
Medicine 53. 
To meet 37. 
Men 54. 
Midwife 46. 
Miller 54. 
Mill-stone 54. 
Milk 27, 54. 
Mire 50. 
Month 54. 
Morning 54. 
Morsel 37. 
Moth 49. 
Mother 54, 66. 
Mother in law 67. 
Mother of pearl 56. 
Mount 25. 
Moustachios 61. 
Mouth 24, 54. 
Much 68. 
Mule 53. 
Mush 53. 
Musket 44. 

Nail 25, 55. 
Naked 55. 
Name 55. 
Navel 55. 
Navy 42. 
Neck 25, 55. 
Needle 55. 
To neigh 69. 
Nephew 67. 
Nerve 24. 
Net 55. 
New 55. 
Nice 55. 
Niece 67. 
Night 55. 
Nose 55. 
Numher 70. 
Nutmeg 54. 

Oil 56. 

Old 33. 

Onion 70. 

To open 35. 

Orphan 68. 

Ostrich 25, 63. 

Other 33. 

Ox 56. 

A pair of oxen 24. 

rain in the helly 

Pain in the eyes 

Palm 46. 
Paper 56. 
Parents 40. 
Parrot 56. 
Partner 35. 

Passengers 56. 
Pay 63. 
To pay 37. 
Pearl 46. 
Pen 41. 
Penknife 41. 
Pepper 56. 
Percussion cap 70. 
Physician 35. 
Piece 63. 
Pigeons 64. 
Pilot 57. 
Pincers 70. 
Pipe 56. 
Pitch 56. 
Place 21. 
Plane 47. 
Plate of wood 26. 
Pocket 64. 
Poor 35. 
Pork 62. 
Pot, a little 27. 
Pregnant 62. 
Pretty 47. 
Provision 57. 
Provisions 55. 
Purslain 57. 
To purge 33. 
To put on (clothes) 

To put off one's 

clothes 35. 

A quarter 68. 
One quarter 29. 

Radish 57. 

Rain 57. 

Ram 26, 59, 69. 

Ramrod 51. 
Rat 26. 
Raven 57. 
Razor 36. 
To read 52. 
Reckon 57. 
Red 21, 58. 
To refuse 33. 
Regiment 57. 
Reins 55. 
Remain 37. 
To repose 35. 
Reptiles 57. 
To resemble 33. 
Ribbon 36. 
Rich 57. 
Right 46. 
Right (to the) 57. 
Ring 25, 58. 
Ring as a ornament 
of the ankles 43. 
Rivulet 25. 
Rize 57. 
Road 68. 
To roast 38. 
Roast-meat 38. 
Rock 23. 
Root 24, 25, 69. 
Rope 26, 63. 
Rottenness 41. 
Rough 59. 
To row 58. 
Rowing-bench 58. 
Rudder 58. 
To run 51. 

Sabre 58. 
Sack 58. 
Saddle 24, 59. 


Saddle for riding 

Sail 62. 
Sailor 53 (it seems 

rather captain). 
Sailor-boy 60. 
Sail-yard 62. 
Salt 58. 
Sand 58. 
Sandals 23, 58. 
Beam for fastening 

the sandals 23. 
Satiated 59. 
Saw 58. 
Saw-fish 58. 
Scale 61. 
Scarf 59. 
To scarify 37. 
School 61. 
Science 69. 
Scissors 59. 
Scorpion 62. 
To scratch 50. 
Screw 61. 
Scull 59. 
Seadog 46. 
To see 62. 
To sell 49. 
Sergeant 52. 
Serpent 26, 60. 
Several persons 

Shadow 25. 
Shaft of a musket 

Sharp 59. 
Sharpened 44, 

To shave 36. 
Shawl 62. 
Sheep 59. 
Shell 54. 
Shield 25, 60. 
Ship 59. 
Shirt 47. 
Shoe, shoemaker 

To shoot 59. 
Short 51. 

Shoulder 26, 61. 
Shoulder-belt 68. 
To show 70. 
Sick 50. 
Sick ttrbe 11. 
Sight 44. 
Silent (to be) 62. 
Silk 62. 
Sinew 62. 
To sing 62. 
To sink 62. 
Sister 66. 
Sister in law 67. 
Sit down 62. 
Skin 46. 
Skin of an ox 

covered over 

the Angareb 56, 
Slave fern. 25. 
To sleep, sleepy 60. 
Sleeve 33. 
Slipper 56. 
Slit 63. 
Smell 44. 
To smell, scent 69. 
Smith 61. 

Smooth 44. 
To snarl, snore 61. 
Snuff 64. 
Soldier 63. 
Sole 62. 
Son 66. 
Sorcerer 47. 
Sore 44. 
Sort 44. 

To sow, sew 55. 
To speak 63. 
Spear 27, 51. 
Spider 63. 
Spouse 44. 
Squinting 59. 
Stalk 45. 
Stallion 47. 
Star 26. 
Stay Impr. 13. 
Stearage 63. 
Stew-pan 49. 
Stick 63. 
Stocking 63. 
Stone 63. 
Stove 56. 
To stop 34. 
Straight 45. 
Straight-on 45. 
To strand 35. 
Strap 25. 
Stutterer 63. 
To substract 64. 
To suckle 58. 
Sugar 70. 
Summer 63. 
Sun 63. 
Supper 33. 
Sweat 62. 
Sweet 64. 

Sweet-meats 70. 
Swelling 44. 
To swim 62. 
Sword 24. 
Cross-bar of the 

handle of the 

sword 26. 

Tail 62. 
Tailor 61. 
Take Impr. 13. 
Tall 45. 
Tallow 64. 
Tamarind 64. 
Taper 49. 
Tapeworm 36. 
To tar 34. 
Task 34. 
Taste 44. 
To taste 51. 
Tasteless 41. 
Tea 64. 
Teacher 52. 
To tear 70. 
Telescope 42. 
Temple 60. 
Thick 39. 
Thing 58. 
One third 29. 
Thread 39. 
Throat 61. 
To tie up 35. 
Timber 36. 
Time 70. 
Times 29. 
Tobacco (sorts of) 

Tomb 25, 45. 
Tongue 70. 

78 - 

Tooth 24, 70. 
Tortoise 60. 
To touch 37. 
To traffic 46. 
Traveller 57. 
Tree 24, 36. 
Tripod' 27. 
Troops 65. 
Trumpeter 65. 
Trustee 68. 
Trowsers 37. 
Turban 65. 
Turtle 60. 
To twist 42. 

Udder 41. 
Ugly 45. 
Uncle 66. 

To unload 35. 
Urine 46. 

Valid 63. 
Veal 48. 
Velvet 59. 
Vinegar 41. 
Virgin 48. 
Voice 63. 
Low voice 63. 
To vomit 41. 
Vulture 43. 

War 50. 
Declaration of war 

Watch 68. 

Water-bag 26. 
Wax 68. 
Weapons 68. 
Weariness 41. 
Weather 69. 
Wheat 69. 
Whip 56. 
White 21, 69. 
Widow 69. 
Wife 69. 
To wind up 35. 
Windlass of the 

ship 60. 
Window 42. 
Wine made 

honey 47. 
Wire 39. 
Wise 69. 


Wolf 69. 
Woman 43, 69. 
Wood 47. 
Wool 69. 
Word 69. 
Work 34. 
To work 34. 
Worm 69. 
Wound 69. 
Wound of burn- 
ing 38. 

Yard 40. 
Yellow 21, 44. 
Yes 30, 48. 
Young 48. 
Youth 48. 


P. 4, L. 9 from bottom read return for returne. 

P. 8, L. 13 ,, top ,, examples for exemples. 

P. 8, L. 8 „ bottom ,, vocabulary for vobabulary. 

P. 27, L. 12 „ „ „ nutsuf for nutsfu. 

P. 39, L. 10 „ „ „ Addice for Adze. 


Im Verlage der Buehhandlung des Waisenhauses in 

Halle sind ferner erschienen: 

Archiv fur wissenschaftliche Erforschung des alten Testamentes, 

herausgegeben von Dr. Adalbert Men, Licent. d. Theol. Priyat- ■ 
docent in Jena. I. Heft, mit einer lithogr. Tafel. 1867. 7 */„ Bog. 
gr. 8. 1 Thlr. 

In halt: Einleitung vom Herausgeber. Abhandlwigeh : I. Die Semiten, eine ethno- 
graphische Studie. Beitrag zur Ethnographie der Hebraer von Prof. Dr. Ju I. Furs t. 
II. Die dem Saadja beigelegte arabische Uebersetzung der hleinen Propheten, heraus- 
gegeben und mit Anmerkungen verdeutscht von Dr. JR.Schr 'oter. 1. (Hosea.) III. Die 
Metheg- Setzung, nach ihren iiberlieferten Gesetzen dargestellt von S. Baer. Zum 
Druck bef&rdert von F. Delitzsch. IV. Zw Geschichte des Stammes Levi von 
Dr. K. H. Graf. Miscellen: Etymologisches zu biblischen Eigennomen von Professor ' 
F. Ritzig. — Epigraphische Mispellm von Dr. Merx, iwit einer Tafel. I 

Arnold, Prof. Dr. Fr. Aug., Abriss der hebrSischen Formenlehre. > 

Zum Gebrauche auf Gymnasien und Universitaten. 1867. 10 % Bog. 
gr. 8. geh. 20 Sgr. 

Gosche, Prof. Dr. E., Studien zur arabischen Literaturgeschichte 

mit besonderer Riicksicht auf al - Soyuti's Kitab al - awail. ca. 8 Bog. 
gr. 8. (Unter der Presse.) ' f 

Ijetftbern, Sprof. Dr. ©ttftttU, (Scjdjicftte (SrtcdjenlanJiS uttter ber £err= i 
f$aft ber Stouter. Sttaft) b. Quellen bargefteHt. Grfter £&ett: Son ft la* * 
tntntttuS BtS auf StuguftuS. 1866. 35 S9og. gr. 8. ge«>. 1 Sf>Ir. 
15 Sgr. (£§eil H. Son 9tuguftu§ Ms (SommobuS ift unter ber ^reffe.) 

Merx, Dr. Adalb., Grammatiea Syriaca, quam post opus Hoff- <* 
manni refecit. Particula prima. 1868. 17 Bog. 4. 2 Thl. 

Der zweite Theil wird in der Kwrze erscheinen, das Ganze mit ca. 50 Bogen vollstan- 
dig sein. 

Peter, Rector Prof. Dr. Carl, Geschichte Koms in 3 Banden. '< 
Zweite grosstentheils umgearbeitete und verbesserte Auflage. 

1. Band. Bis zu den Gracchischen Unruhen. 1865. 34 Bog. 

gr. 8. geh. 1 Thlr.- 15 Sgr. 

2. „ Bis zum Sturze der Bepublik. 1866. 34 Bog.' geh. 

1 Thlr. 15 Sgr. 

3. „ Die Kaiser aus dem Claudisch- Juliscben Hause. 

1867. 25 Bog. gr. 8. geh. 1 Thlr. 7 »/» Sgr. 

Pott, Prof. Dr. Aug., Die Sprachverschiedenheit in Europa an den 
Zahlwortern nachgewiesen, sowie die quinare und vigesimale Zahl- k 
methode. 1867. 7 Bog. gr. 8. geh. 20 Sgr. 

Roediger, Prof. Dr. E. , Chrestomathia syriaca c. glossario et _" 
tabulis grammaticis. Ed. secunda auct. et emend, ca. 20 Bog. 4. -x 
(Unter der Presse.) i 

Versueli iiber die himjaritischen Schriftmonumente. Mit 

einem Vorwort an Herm Dr. Gesenius. 1841. gr. 8. geh. 
15 Sgr. 

Schlottmann, Prof. Dr. Konst., Die Inscbrift Esckmunazars, 

Kbnigs der Sidonier. Mit 2 Taf. Abbildungen u. Inschriften. 1867. 
13Va Bog. gr. 8. 1 Thlr. 10 Sgr. 

Wichelhaus, J., de Noyi Testamenti versione Syriaca antiqua 
quam Peschitho vocant, libri quattuor. Mit einer Karte von Syrien 
1850. gr. 8. geh. 1 Thlr. 20 Sgr. 

Halle, Druck der Waisciihaus-Buclidruckerei. 

Cornell University Library 


Vocabulary of the Tigre language 

3 1924 006 049 591 



arv Loar